Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Ruminal Degradability of Tropical Feeds and Their Potential Use in Ruminant Diets
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Ruminal Degradability of Tropical Feeds and Their Potential Use in Ruminant Diets
Chanjula, P.; Wanapat, M.; Wachirapakorn, C.; Uriyapongson, S.; Rowlinson, P.;
  PDF(new window)
The objective of this study was to determine the degradability of cassava chip (CC), cassava waste (CW), yellow sweet potato (YP), white sweet potato (WP), purple sweet potato (PP), corn meal (CM), and rice bran (RB) using in situ technique. Two ruminally fistulated steers with an average weight of were used to determine in situ degradabilities of DM and OM. Seven feed sources were weighted in nylon bags ( pore size) and incubated ruminally for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. The results showed that asymptote (a+b) and effective degradability (ED) of DM of energy sources ranked from the highest to the lowest; CC, YP, WP, PP, RB, CW, and CM (99.3, 92.5; 97.6, 87.9; 97.5, 87.9; 97.2, 87.8; 87.5, 63.6; 78.6, 63.0 and 81.7; 59.3, respectively) and for OM asymptote (a+b) and effective degradability (ED) were similar to those of degradation of DM (99.4, 93.4; 98.8, 89.8; 98.5, 89.4; 98.4, 88.1; 92.4, 65.8; 85.1, 66.9 and 83.6, 63.3, respectively). It was concluded that disappearance characteristic of CC was the highest and it may potentially facilitate the achievement of optimal ruminal availability of energy: protein especially with NPN for microbial protein synthesis.
Rumen Degradability;Tropical Energy Sources;Ruminants;Nylon Bag;Microbial Protein Synthesis;
 Cited by
Effect of Levels of Supplementation of Concentrate Containing High Levels of Cassava Chip on Rumen Ecology, Microbial N Supply and Digestibility of Nutrients in Beef Cattle,Wanapat, M.;Khampa, S.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2007. vol.20. 1, pp.75-81 crossref(new window)
Estimation of Ruminal Degradation and Intestinal Digestion of Tropical Protein Resources Using the Nylon Bag Technique and the Three-step In vitro Procedure in Dairy Cattle on Rice Straw Diets,Promkot, C.;Wanapat, Metha;Rowlinson, P.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2007. vol.20. 12, pp.1849-1857 crossref(new window)
Effects of Replacing Ground Corn with Cassava Chip in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Utilization, Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Populations in Goats,Chanjula, P.;Ngampongsai, W.;Wanapat, M.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2007. vol.20. 10, pp.1557-1566 crossref(new window)
Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes,Wanapat, Metha;Pilajun, R.;Polyorach, S.;Cherdthong, A.;Khejornsart, P.;Rowlinson, P.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2013. vol.26. 7, pp.952-960 crossref(new window)
AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Chen, X. B. 1996. An Excel Application Program for Processing Feed Degradability Data. User Manual, Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, UK.

Cone, J. W., W. Clinetheil, A. Malestein and A. T. Vantklooster. 1989. Degradation of starch by incubation with rumen fluid-a comparison of different starch sources. J. Sci. Food and Agric. 49:173-183. crossref(new window)

Cone, J. W., A. H. Van Glider and P. G. B. De Lange. 1997. Determination of rumen fermentation characteristics of concentrate ingredients with the gas production technique. Processing of the British Society of Animal Science. Annual meeting March 1997, British Society of Animal Science. 195.

Cone, J. W. and M. G. E. Wolters. 1990. Some properties and degradability of isolated starch granules. Starch/Starke. 42:298-301. crossref(new window)

De Boer, G., J. J. Murphy and J. J. Kennelly. 1987. Mobile nylon bag for estimating intestinal available of rumen undegradable protein. J. Dairy Sci. 70:977-982.

Firkins, J. L. 1996. Maximizing microbial protein-synthesis in the rumen. J. Nutr. 126. S1347.

Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage Fiber Analysis (Apparatus, Reagent, Procedures and some Application). Agric. Handbook. No. 397, ARS, USDA, Washington, DC, p. 19.

Herrera-Saldana, R., R. Gomez-Alarcon, M. Torali and J. T. Huber. 1990. Influence of synchronizing protein and starch degradation in the rumen on nutrient utilization an microbial protein synthesis. J. Dairy Sci. 73:142-148.

Hoover, W. H. 1986. Chemical factors involved in ruminal fiber digestion. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2755-2766.

Huntington, G. B. 1997. Starch utilization by ruminants: From basics to the bunk. J. Anim. Sci. 75:852-867.

Kearl, L. C. 1982. Nutrient Requirement of Ruminants in Developing Countries. International Feedstuffs Institute, Utah State University, Utah.

Kotarski, S. F., R. D. Waniska and K. K. Thurn. 1992. Starch hydrolysis by the ruminal microflora. J. Nutr. 122:178-190.

National Research Council. 2001. Nutritional Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.

Nocek, J. E. and S. Tamminga. 1991. Site of digestion of starch in the gastro-intestinal tract of dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and composition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3598-3629.

Noziere, P. and B. Michalet-Doreau. 2000. Farm animal metabolism and nutriton: In Sacco Methods. Edited by D' Mello. J.P.F. CABI Publishing. New York, NY. pp. 233-254.

Orskov, E. R. 1982. Protein Nutrition in Ruminants. Academic Press, London. UK.

Orskov, E. R. and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. 92:499-503. crossref(new window)

Orskov, E. R., G. W. Reid and M. Kay. 1988. Prediction of intake by cattle from degradation characteristics of roughage. Anim. Prod. 46:29-34.

Owens, F. N., R. A. Zinn and Y. K. Kim. 1986. Limits to starch digestion in the ruminant small-in intestine. J. Anim. Sci. 63:1634-1648.

Preston, T. R. and R. A. Leng. 1987. Matching Ruminant Production Systems with Available Resources in the Tropics and Sub-tropics. Armidale Australia: Penambul Books.

Richard, J. E., M. Asaoha and M. V. Blanshard. 1991. The physiochemical properties of cassava starch. Tropical Science. 31:189-207.

Rooney, L. W. and R. L. Pflugfelder. 1986. Factors affecting starch digestibility with special emphasis on sorghum and corn. J. Anim. Sci. 63:1607-1623.

SAS. 1998. User's Guide: Statistics, Version 7th Edition. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.

Sommart, K., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakhorn and W. Toburan. 1991. Digestibility of organic matter of various energy sources in rumen of cattle and buffaloes. In: Proceeding the 29th Annual Meeting, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Sommart, K., D. S. Parker, P. Rowlinson and M. Wanapat. 2000. Fermentation characteristics and microbial protein synthesis in an in vitro system using cassava, rice straw and dried ruzi grass as substrates. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 13:1094-1101.

Wanapat, M. 2000. Rumen manipulation to increase the efficient use of local feed resources and productivity of ruminants in the tropics. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 13(Suppl.):59-67.

Wanapat, M., O. Pimpa, K. Sommart, S. Uriyapongson, W. Toburan, D. Parker and P. Rowlinson. 1995. Effects of energy sources on rumen fermentation, degradability and rice straw intake in swamp buffaloes. In: Proceedings Int. Workshop on Draft Animal Power to Increase Farming Efficiency and Sustainability. (Ed. M. Wanapat, S. Uriyapongson and K. Sommart). Khon Kaen: Khon Kaen University. Thailand.

Wester, T. J., S. M. Gramlich, R. A. Britton and R. A. Stock. 1992. Effect of grain sorghum hybrid on in vitro rate of starch disappearance and finishing performance of ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2866-2876.

Yu, P., A. R. Egan, J. H. G. Holmes and B. J. Leury. 1998. Influence of dry roasting of whole faba beans (Vicia faba) on rumen degradation characteristics in dairy cows, II: starch. Asain-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 11:503-509.