Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Normal and Low Viscosity Rye or Barley with or without Enzyme Supplementation
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Normal and Low Viscosity Rye or Barley with or without Enzyme Supplementation
He, T.; Thacker, P.A.; McLeod, J.G.; Campbell, G.L.;
  PDF(new window)
This experiment was conducted to measure nutrient digestibility and performance in broiler chicks fed diets based on normal and low viscosity rye or barley fed with and without enzyme (pentosanase and -glucanase) during a 17 day growth trial. A total of 150 one-day old, male broiler chicks (5 birds per pen and 5 pens per treatment) were randomly assigned to one of six dietary treatments in a factorial design experiment (3 cereals2 enzyme levels). Digestibility coefficients were determined using chromic oxide. Digestibility coefficients for dry matter and crude protein were significantly (p=0.0001) higher for the barley-based diets than for any of the rye-based diets. Digestibility coefficients for gross energy did not differ (p>0.05) due to cereal grain. There were no differences in the digestibility coefficients for dry matter and gross energy between chicks fed normal and low viscosity rye. However, the digestibility coefficient for crude protein was higher (p=0.01) for the low viscosity rye compared with the normal viscosity rye. Addition of enzyme to the diet significantly (p=0.0001) increased digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein and energy. There were no significant differences in weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion between birds fed barley or rye or between birds fed normal or low viscosity rye. Enzyme supplementation significantly improved (p=0.0001) weight gain, intake and feed conversion. The overall results of this experiment indicate that unsupplemented barley and rye do not support adequate growth rates in poultry. Enzyme supplementation dramatically improved broiler performance. In addition, genetic selection to reduce the viscosity of rye had only a modest effect on the nutritive value of rye for broilers.
 Cited by
Antoniou, T., R. R. Marquardt and P. E. Cansfield. 1981. Isolation, partial characterization, and anti-nutritional activity of a factor (pentosans) in rye grains. J. Agric. Food Chem. 29:1240-1247. crossref(new window)

AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.

Bedford, M. R., H. L. Classen and G. L. Campbell. 1991. The effect of pelleting, salt and pentosanase on the viscosity of intestinal contents and the performance of broilers fed rye. Poult. Sci. 70:1571-1577.

Bedford, M. R. and H. L. Classen. 1992. Reduction in intestinal viscosity through manipulation of dietary rye and pentosanase concentration is effected through changes in the carbohydrase composition of the intestinal aqueous phase and results inimproved growth rate and food conversion efficiency of broiler chicks. J. Nutr. 122:560-569.

Burnett, G. S. 1966. Studies on viscosity as the probable factor involved in the improvement of certain barleys for chickens by enzyme supplementation. Br. Poult. Sci. 7:55-75. crossref(new window)

Campbell, G. L., L. D. Campbell and H. L. Classen. 1983. Utilization of rye by chickens: Effects of microbial status, diet gamma irradiation and sodium taurocholate supplementation. Br. Poult. Sci. 24:191-203. crossref(new window)

Campbell, G. L., B. G. Rossnagel and R. Bhatty. 1993. Evaluation of hull-less barley genotypes varying in extract viscosity in broiler chick diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 41:191-197. crossref(new window)

Cheeke, P. R. 1997. Natural Toxicants in Feeds, Forages, and Poisonous Plants. Interstate Publishers, Inc. Danville, Illinois p. 479.

Classen, H. L., G. L. Campbell, B. G. Rossnagel, R. Bhatty and R. D. Reichert. 1985. Studies on the use of hulless barley in chick diets: Deleterious effects and methods of alleviation. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 65:725-733.

Classen, H. L., G. L. Campbell and J. W. D. GrootWassink. 1988. Improved feeding value of Saskatchewan-grown barley for broiler diets with dietary enzyme supplementation. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1253-1259.

Edney, M. J., G. L. Campbell and H. L. Classen. 1989. The effect of $\beta$-glucanase supplementation on digestibility in broiler diets containing barley, oat groats or wheat. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 25:193-200. crossref(new window)

Fengler, A. I., J. R. Pawlik and R. R. Marquardt. 1988. Improvement in nutrient retention and changes in chicks feeding rye-containing diets supplemented with fungal enzymes, sodium taurocholate and penicillin. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 68:483-491.

Gan, Y., McLeod, J. G., Scoles, G. J. and Campbell, G. L., 1996. Genetic and environmental influence on the extract viscosity of winter rye (Secale cereale L.). Plant Breed. Seed Sci. 40: 93-102.

GrootWassink, J. W., G. L. Campbell and H. L. Classen. 1989. Fraction of crude pentosans (arabinoxylanase) for improvement of nutritional value of rye for broiler chickens. J. Sci. Food Agric. 46:289-300. crossref(new window)

McLeod, J. G. and J. F. Payne. 1996. AC Rifle winter rye. Can. J. Plant Sci. 76, 143-144.

National Research Council, 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th revised edition. National Academy Press, Washington DC., p. 155

North, M. O. and D. D. Bell. 1990. Commercial Chicken Production Manual. 4th Ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, p. 913.

Patrick, H. and P. J. Schaible. 1990. Poultry: Feeds and Nutrition. 2nd Ed. AVI Publishing Company, Westport, Connecticut, p. 688.

Pettersson, D. and P. Aman. 1988. Effects of enzyme supplementation of diets based on wheat, rye or triticale on their productive value for broiler chickens. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 20:313-324. crossref(new window)

Schneider, B. H. and W. P. Flatt. 1975. The Evaluation of Feeds Through Digestibility Experiments. University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia p. 423.

Scoles, G. J., G. L. Campbell and J. G. McLeod. 1993. Variability for grain extract viscosity in inbred lines of an F2 population of rye (Secale cereals L.). Can. J. Plant Sci. 73, 1-6.

Statistical Analysis System Institute, Inc. 1999. SAS Users Guide, Version 8. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.

Teitge, D. A., G. L. Campbell, H. L. Classen and P. A. Thacker. 1990. Heat treatment as a means of improving responses to dietary pentosanase in chick fed rye. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 71:507-514.

Thacker, P. A., G. L. Campbell and G. L. Scoles. 1999. Performance of young growing pigs (17-34 kg) fed rye-based diets selected for reduced viscosity. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 8:549-556.

White, W. B., H. R. Bird, M. L. Sunde, J. A. Marlett, N. A. Prentice and W. C. Burger. 1981. Viscosity of $\beta$-D- glucan as a factor in the enzymatic improvement of barley for chicks. Poult. Sci. 62:853-862.