JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Expander Processing and Enzyme Supplementation of Wheat-based Diets for Finishing Pigs
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Expander Processing and Enzyme Supplementation of Wheat-based Diets for Finishing Pigs
Park, J.S.; Kim, I.H.; Hancock, J.D.; Wyatt, C.L.; Behnke, K.C.; Kennedy, G.A.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of expander processing and enzyme supplementation of wheat-based diets on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs. For Exp. 1, 60 finishing pigs (average initial BW of 49.5 kg) were fed meal, standard pellets and expanded pellets in a 70 d growth assay. From 49.5 to 79.0 kg, 79.0 to 111.8 kg, and overall (49.5 to 111.8 kg), ADG and ADFI were not affected by pelleting or standard vs expander conditioning (p>0.22). However, from 49.5 to 79.0 kg, pigs fed pellets have greater gain/feed than pigs fed mash (p<0.04), and pigs fed expanded pellets tended to have greater (p<0.10) gain/feed than pigs fed standard pellets. Overall (i.e. from 49.5 to 111.8 kg), gain/feed (p<0.02) and apparent fecal digestibilities of DM (p<0.001) and N (p<0.02) were improved by pelleting the diets. Also, expander processing further improved gain/feed (p<0.06) and digestibility of DM (p<0.04) compared to standard steam conditioning. Scores for keratinization (p<0.002) and ulceration (p<0.003) of the stomach were increased by pelleting, but the mean scores for the various treatments ranged only from 0.05 to 1.08 (i.e., low to mild keratosis and ulceration). For Exp. 2, 80 pigs (average initial BW of 54.1 kg) were fed mash and pellets (standard or expander) without and with xylanase. The enzyme was added to supply 4,000 units of xylanase activity/kg of diet. Adding xylanase to the mash diet improved gain/feed from 90.7 to 115.9 kg (p<0.04) of the growth assay and digestibility of DM (p<0.05) on d 39. However, in pelleted diets, adding the enzyme did not improve growth performance or digestibility of nutrients. Pelleting tended to increase scores for ulceration (p<0.06), and enzyme supplementation decreased stomach keratinization scores for pigs fed the standard pellets (p<0.01). However, as in Exp. 1, the mean scores for all treatment groups were quiet low (i.e., ranging from normal to mild). In conclusion, pelleting improved efficiency of growth, but additional benefits from expander conditioning were observed only in Exp. 1. Finally, xylanase tended to improve growth performance and nutrient digestibility, only in pigs fed mash diets but not in pigs fed pellets.
 Keywords
Wheat;Pellet;Expander;Enzyme;Stomach;Pig;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Crumbled or mashed feed had no significant effect on the performance of lactating sows or their offspring,;;;;

Journal of Animal Science and Technology, 2015. vol.57. 12, pp.45.1-45.5 crossref(new window)
 References
1.
Antoniou, T. C. and R. R. Marquardt. 1982. The utilization of rye by growing chicks as influenced by autoclave treatment, water extraction, and water soaking. Poult. Sci. 62:91-102.

2.
AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis (16th Ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.

3.
ASAE. 1995. Method of determining and expressing fineness of feed materials by sieving. ASAE Standard S319.2, Agricultural Engineers Yearbook of Standards. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. pp. 461-462.

4.
Baird, D. M. 1973. Influence of pelleting swine diets on metabolizable energy, growth, and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 36:516-521.

5.
Bedford, M. R. and M. Pack. 1998. Thermalstability of enzymes in feed processing examined. p. 12 Feedsuffs 70:32.

6.
Bedford, M .R. 1995. Mechanism of action and potential environmental benefits from the use of feed enzymes. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 53:145-155. crossref(new window)

7.
Bedford, M. R., M. Pack and C. L. Wyatt. 1997. Relevance of in feed analysis of enzyme activity for prediction of bird performance in wheat-based diets. Poult. Sci. 76(Suppl. 1):39(Abstr.).

8.
Bedford, M. R. and H. L. Classen. 1992. Reduction of intestinal viscosity through manipulation of dietary rye and pentosanase concentration is effected through change in the carbohydrate composition of the intestinal aqueous phase and results in improved growth rate and conversion. J. Nutr. 122:560-569.

9.
Berruecos, J. M. and O. W. Robison. 1972. Inheritance of gastric ulcers in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 35:20-28.

10.
Brufau, J., C. Nogareda, A. Perez-Vendrell, M. Francesch and E. Esteve-Garcia. 1991. Effect of Trichoderma viride enzymes in pelleted broiler diets based on barley. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 34:193-202. crossref(new window)

11.
Cabrera, M. R. 1994. Effects of sorghum genotype and particle size on milling characteristics and performance of finishing pigs, broiler chicks and laying hens. M. S. Thesis. Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

12.
Campbell, G. L. and M. R. Bedford. 1992. Enzyme applications for mongastric feeds: A review. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 72:449-466.

13.
Choct, M. and G. Annison. 1992. Anti-nutritive effect of wheat pentosans in broiler diets: Roles of viscosity and gut microflora. Br. Poult. Sci. 33:821-834. crossref(new window)

14.
Consortium. 1988. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. Consortium for Developing a Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching, Champaign, IL.

15.
Dietick, N. A. 1989. Biotechnology aids to improve feed and feed digestion: Enzymes and fermentation. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 39:241-261. crossref(new window)

16.
Englyst, H. N. and J. H. Cummings. 1984. Simplified method for the measurement of total non-starch ploysaccharides by gasliquid chromatography of constituent sugars as alditol acetates. Analyst 109:937-942. crossref(new window)

17.
Flores, M. P., J. I. R. Custanon and J. M. McNab. 1994. Effects of enzyme supplementation of wheat and triticale based diets for broilers. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol. 49:237-243. crossref(new window)

18.
Hancock, J. D. 1992. Extrusion cooking of dietary ingredients for animal feeding. Proceedings of Distiller Feed Conf. 47:33-49., April 23, Cincinati, OH.

19.
Hancock, J. D., E. R. Peo, Jr., A. J. Lewis, L. I. Chiba and J. D. Crenshaw. 1990b. Effects of alcohol extraction and heat treatment on the utilization of soybean protein by growing rats and pigs. J. Sci. Food Agric. 52:193-205. crossref(new window)

20.
Hancock, J. D., E. R. Peo, Jr., A. J. Lewis, L. I. Chiba and J. D. Crenshaw. 1990c. Effects of ethanol extraction and duration of heat treatment of soybean flakes on the utilization of soybean protein by growing rats and pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 68:3233-3243.

21.
Hancock, J. D., A. J. Lewis, D. B. Jones, M. A. Giesemann, and B. J. Healy. 1990a. Processing method affects the nutritional value of low-inhibitor soybeans for nursery pigs. p. 52. Kansas Agric. Exp. Sta. Rep. Of Prog. 641.

22.
Hancock, J. D., M. A. Giesemann, J. L. Lelsson, A. J. Lewis, K. R. Richardson. E. R. Peo, Jr. and J. H. Rupnow. 1989. Effect of heat treatment on the nutritional value of soybeans lacking the kunitz trypsin inhibitor for nursery-age pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 76(Suppl. 2):128(Abstr.).

23.
Hancock, J. D., R. H. Hines, B. T Richert and T. L. Gugle. 1993. Extrusion of corn, sorghum, wheat, and barley affects growth performance and nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71(Suppl. 1):13(Abstr.).

24.
Hanke, H. E., J. W. Rust, R. J. Meade and L. E. Hanson. 1972. Influence of source of soybean protein, and of pelleting, on rate of gain/feed of growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 35:958-962.

25.
Harris, D. D., L. F. Tribble and D. E. Orr, Jr. 1979. The effects of meal versus different size pelleted forms of sorghum-soybean meal diets for finishing swine. p. 57. Proc. 27th Annual Swine Short Course, Texas Tech University, Agric. Sci. Tech. Rep. No. T-5-144.

26.
Healy, B. J., J. D. Hancock, G. A. Kennedy, P. J. Bramel-Cox, K. C. Behnke and R. H. Hines. 1994. Optimum particle size of corn and hard and soft sorghum grain for nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2227-2236.

27.
Henry, R. J. 1987. Pentosan and 1-3, 1-4 beta-glucan concentrations in endosperm and whole grain of wheat, barley, oats, and rye. J. Cereal Chem. 6:253-258.

28.
Jensen, A. H. and D. E. Becker. 1965. Effects of pelleting diets and dietary components on the performance of young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 24:392-399

29.
Johnston, S. L., J. D. Hancock, R. H. Hines, G. A. Kennedy, S. L. Traylor, B. J. Chae and In K. Han. 1999a. Effects of expander conditioning of corn- and sorghum-based diets on pellet quality and performance in finishing pigs and lactating sows. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12:565-572.

30.
Johnston, S. L., R. H. Hines, J. D. Hancock, K. C. Behnke, S. L. Traylor, B. J. Chae and In K. Han. 1999b. Effects of conditioner (standard, long-term, and expander) on pellet quality and growth performance in nursery and finishing pigs. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12:558-564.

31.
Kim, I. H., J. D. Hancock, R. H. Hines and C. S. Kim. 1998. Effects of cellulase and bacterial feed additives on the nutritional value of sorghum grain for finishing pigs. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 11:538-544.

32.
Lawrence B. A., D. B. Anderson, O. Adeola and T. R. Cline. 1998. Changes in pars esophageal tissue appearance of the porcine stomach in response to transportation, feed deprivation, and diets compostion. J. Anim. Sci. 76:788-795.

33.
Mavromichalis, I., J. D. Hancock, B. W. Senne, H. Cao and R. H. Hines. 1998. Arabinoxylanase supplementation and particle size of wheat-based diets in nursery and finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 76(Suppl. 2):58(Abstr.).

34.
Muggenburg, B. A., S. H. McNutt and T. Kowalczyk. 1964. Pathology of gastric ulcers in swine. Am. J. Vet. Res. 25:1354-1365.

35.
NPPC. 1996. Equations for calculation of standard backfat and fat free lean index. National Pork Producers Council, Des Moines, IA.

36.
NRC. 1988. Nutrient Requirements of Swine (8th Ed.). National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

37.
O'Doherty J. V. and J. J. Callen. 1998. The effect of expander processing on the nutritive value of feed for pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 76(Suppl. 1):727 (Abstr.).

38.
Pettersson, D. and P. Aman. 1989. Enzyme supplementation of poultry diets containing rye and wheat. Br. J. Nutr. 62:139-149. crossref(new window)

39.
Pettersson, D., H. Graham and P. Aman. 1991. The nutritive value for broiler chickens of pelleting and enzyme supplementation of a diet containing barley, wheat, and rye. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 33:1-14. crossref(new window)

40.
Pickett, R.A., W. H. Fugate, R. B. Harrington, T. W. Perry and T. M. Curtin. 1969. Influence of feed preparation and number of pigs per pen on growth performance and occurrence of esophagogastric ulcers in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 28:837-842.

41.
Riker, J. T., III, T. W. Perry, R. A. Pickett and T. M. Curtin. 1967. Influence of various grains on the incidence of esophagogastric ulcers in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 26:731-735.

42.
SAS. 1996. SAS/$STAT^{\circledR}$ User's Guide (Release 6.12). SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.

43.
Skoch, E. R., S. F. Binder, C. W. Deyoe, G. L. Allee and K. C. Behnke. 1983. Effects of pelleting conditions on performance of pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet. J. Anim. Sci. 57:922-928.

44.
Thacker, P. A., G. L. Campbell and J. W. D. GrootWassink. 1991. The effect of enzyme supplementation on the nutritive value of rye-based diets for swine. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 71:489-496.

45.
Thacker, P. A., G. L. Campbell and J. W. D. GrootWassink. 1992a. The effect of salinomycin and enzyme supplementation on nutrient digestibility and performance of pigs fed barley- or rye-based diets. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 72:117-125.

46.
Thacker, P. A., G. L. Campbell and J. W. D. GrootWassink. 1992b. The effect of organic acids and enzyme supplementation on the performance of pigs fed barley-based diets. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 72:395-402.

47.
Tovar, J., A. Francisco, I. Bjork and N. Asp. 1991. Relationship between microstructure and in vitro digestibility of starch in pre-cooked leguminous seed flour. Food Struct. 10:19-26.

48.
Traylor, S. L., K. C. Behnke, J. D. Hancock, R. H. Hines, S. L. Johnston, B. J. Chae and In K. Han. 1999. Effects of expander operating conditions on nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12:400-410.

49.
Tribble, L. F. and A. M. Lennon. 1975. Meal versus pelleted sorghum-soybean meal rations for growing-finishing swine. p31. Proc. 23rd annual Swine short Course, Texas Tech Univ. Agric. Sci. Tech. Rep. No. T-5-111.

50.
Van Lunen, T. A. and H. Schulze. 1996. Influence of Trichoderma longibrachiatium xylanase supplementation of wheat- and corn-based diets on growth performance of pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 76:271-273.

51.
White, W. B., H. R. Bird, M. L. Sunde and J. A. Marlett. 1983. Viscosity of $\beta$-glucan as a factor in the enzymatic improvement of barley for chicks. Poult. Sci. 62:853-858.

52.
Williams, C. H., D. J. David and O. Iismaa. 1962. The determination of chromic oxide in feces by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. J. Agric. Sci. 59:381-389. crossref(new window)

53.
Wondra, K. J., J. D. Hancock, G. A. Kennedy, R. H. Hines and K. C. Behnke. 1995c. Reducing particle size of corn in lactation diets from 1,200 to 400 micrometer improves sow and litter performance. J. Anim. Sci. 73:421-426.

54.
Wondra, K. J., J. D. Hancock, G. A. Kennedy, R. H. Hines and K. C. Behnke. 1995d. Reducing particle size of corn in lactation diets on energy and nitrogen metabolism in second-parity sows. J. Anim. Sci. 427-432.

55.
Wondra, K. J., J. D. Hancock, K. C. Behnke, R. H. Hines and C. R. Stark. 1995a. Effects of particle size and pelleting on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and stomach morphology in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:757-763.

56.
Wondra, K. J., J. D. Hancock, K. C. Behnke, R. H. Hines and C. R. Stark. 1995b. Effects of mill type and particle size uniformity on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and stomach morphology in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2564-2573.