Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Biosynthesis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Its Incorporation into Ruminant's Products
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Biosynthesis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Its Incorporation into Ruminant's Products
Song, Man K.; Kennelly, John J.;
  PDF(new window)
Bio-hydrogenation of -unsaturated fatty acids released from the hydrolysis of dietary lipids in the rumen, in general, occurs rapidly but the range of hydrogenation is quite large, depending on the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids, the configuration of unsaturated fatty acids, microbial type and the experimental condition. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is incompletely hydrogenated products by rumen microorganisms in ruminant animals. It has been shown to have numerous potential benefits for human health and the richest dietary sources of CLA are bovine milk and milk products. The cis-9, trans-11 is the predominant CLA isomer in bovine products and other isomers can be formed with double bonds in positions 8/10, 10/12, or 11/13. The term CLA refers to this whole group of 18 carbon conjugated fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid goes through a similar bio-hydrogenation process producing trans-11 and , but may not appear to produce CLA as an intermediate. Although the CLA has been mostly derived from the dietary alternative pathway may be existed due to the extreme microbial diversity in the reticulo-rumen. Regardless of the origin of CLA, manipulation of the bio-hydrogenation process remains the key to increasing CLA in milk and beef by dietary means, by increasing rumen production of CLA. Although the effect of oil supplementation on changes in fatty acid composition in milk seems to be clear its effect on beef is still controversial. Thus further studies are required to enrich the CLA in beef under various dietary and feeding conditions.
Bio-hydrogenation;Rumen Bacteria;Unsaturated Fatty Acids;Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA);Oil Source;Dietary Manipulation;
 Cited by
Biohydrogenation Pathways for Linoleic and Linolenic Acids by Orpinomyces Rumen Fungus,;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2007. vol.20. 11, pp.1694-1698 crossref(new window)
Effect of pasture vs. concentrate diet on CLA isomer distribution in different tissue lipids of beef cattle, Lipids, 2005, 40, 6, 589  crossref(new windwow)
Vaccenic Acid and cis-9,trans-11 CLA in the Rumen and Different Tissues of Pasture- and Concentrate-Fed Beef Cattle, Lipids, 2007, 42, 12, 1093  crossref(new windwow)
Correlation of Geographical Location with Stable Isotope Values of Hydrogen and Carbon of Fatty Acids from New Zealand Milk and Bulk Milk Powder, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2013, 61, 37, 8914  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of supplemental conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on fresh and post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls, Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 2017, 52, 3, 459  crossref(new windwow)
Baumgard, L. H., B. A. Corl, D. A. Dwyer, A. Sabo and D. E. Bauman. 2000. Identification of the conjugated linoleic acid isomer that inhibits milk fat synthesis. American Journal of Physiology 278:R197-R184).

Baumgard, L. H., J. K. Sangster and D. E. Bauman. 2001. Milk fat synthesis in dairy cows is progressively reduced by increasing supplemental amounts of tran-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). J. Nutr. 131:1764-1769.

Beaulieu, A. D., J. K. Drackey, N. R. Merchen and E. L. Falkenstein. 2000. Concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid in beef carcasses are not increased by supplementing a highcorn diet with 5% soybean oil. J. Anim. Sci. 78(suppl. 1):285 (Abstr.).

Beaulieu, A. D., J. K. Drackey and N. R. Merchen. 2002. Concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11-octadecadienoic acid) are not increased in tissue lipids of cattle fed a high-concentrate diet supplemented with soybean oil. J. Anim. Sci. 80:47-861.

Belbury, M. A. 1995. Conjugated dienoic linoleate: A polyunsaturated fatty acid with unique chemoprotective properties. Nutr. Rev. 53(4):83-89. crossref(new window)

Bell, J. A. and J. J. Kennelly. 2000. Producing conjugated linoleic acid enriched milk through practical dairy nutrition. Conference abstract: 8th World Congress on Clinical Nutrition, Bankok, Thailand. December 17-20, 2000.

Bell, J. A. and J. J. Kennelly. 2001. Synthetic conjugated linoleic acid may cause mammary involution in dairy cows. Proceedings of the Joint meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, and Poultry Science Association, 2001, p. 8.

Bessa, R. J., J. Santos-Silva, J. M. Ribeiro and A. V. Portugal. 2000. Reticulo-rumen biohydrogenation and the enrichment of ruminal edible products with linoleic acid conjugated isomers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:201-211.

Chilliard, Y., A. Ferlay and M. Doreau. 2001. Effect of different types of forages, animal fat or marine oils in cow's diet on milk fat secretion and composition, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Livestock Production Science 70:31-48. crossref(new window)

Chouinard, P. Y., L. Corneau, D. M. Barbano. L. E. Metzger and D. E. Bauman. 1999. Conjugated linoleic acids alter milk fatty acid composition and inhibit milk fat secretion in dairy cows. J. Nutr. 129:1579-1584.

Chouinard, P. Y., L. Corneau, D. E. Bauman, W. R. Butler, Y. Chilliard and J. K. Drackley. 1998. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different sources of dietary fat. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 76(suppl. 1)/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 81(suppl. 1)/1998(Abstr.).

Corl, B. A., L. H. Baumgard, D. A. Dwyer, J. M. Griinari, B. S. Phillips and D. E. Bauman. 2000. The role of ${\Delta}^9$-desaturase in the productionof cis-9, trans-11 CLA and other ${\Delta}^9$ desaturated fatty acids. Proceedings of the 2000 ADSA/ASAS Joint meeting, p. 164.

Dhiman, T. R. 2000. Conjugated linoleic acid: A food for cancer prevention. Feedstuffs, May 1, 2000:24-32.

Dhiman, T. R., G. R. Anand, L. D. Satter and M. W. Pariza. 1999. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different diets. J. Dairy Sci. 82:2146-2156. crossref(new window)

Dawson, R. M. C. and P. Kemp. 1970. Biohydrogenation of dietary fats in ruminants. In: Physiology of Digestion and Metabolism in the Ruminant (Ed. A. T. Phillipson). Oriel Press, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, pp. 504-518.

Enser, M., N. D. Scollan, N. J. Choi, E. Kurt, K. Hallet and J. D. Wood. 1999. Effect of dietary lipid on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in beef muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 69:143-146. crossref(new window)

Fellner, V., F. D. Sauer and J. K. G. Kramer. 1995. Steady-state rates of linoleic acid biohydrogenation by ruminal bacteria in continuous culture. J. Dairy Sci. 78:1815-1824. crossref(new window)

Giesy, J. G., S. Viswanadha, T. W. Hanson, L. R. Falen, M. A. McGuire, C. H. Skarie and A. Vinci. 1999. Effect of calcium salts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on estimated energy balance of early lactation dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82(suppl. 1):74.

Griinari, J. M., P. Y. Chouinard and D. E. Bauman. 1997. Trans fatty acid hypothesis of milk fat depression revised. Proceedings Cornell Nutr. Conf. Feed Manuf., 59th Cornell Nutrition Conference, Ithaca, New York, 1997. pp. 208-216.

Griinari, J. M., D. A. Dwyer, M. A. McGuire, D. E. Bauman, D. L. Palmquist and K. V. V. Nurmela. 1998. Trans-octadecanoic acids and milk fat depression in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:1251-1261. crossref(new window)

Griinari. J. M. and D. E. Bauman. 1999. Biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid and its incorporation into meat and milk of ruminants. In: Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 1 (Ed. M. P. Yurawecz, M. M. Mossoba, J. K. G. Kramer, M. W. Pariza and G. J. Nelson). AOCS press, Illinois, Chapter 13, pp. 180-200.

Gulati, S. K., S. M. Kitessa, J. R. Ashes, E. Fleck, E. B. Byers, Y. G. Byer and T. W. Scott. 2000. Protection of conjugated linoleic acids from ruminal hydrogenation and their incorporation into milk fat. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 86:139-148. crossref(new window)

Ha, Y. L., N. K. Grimm and M. W. Pariza. 1987. Anticarcinogens from fried ground beef: heat-altered derivatives of linoleic acid. Carcinogenesis 8(12):1881-1887. crossref(new window)

Harfoot, C. G. and G. P. Hazlewood. 1988. Lipid metabolism in the rumen. In: The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem (Ed. P. N. Hobson). Elsevier Appl. Sci., London and New York. pp. 285-322

Hazlewood, G. P. and R. M. C. Dawson. 1979. Characteristics of a lipolytic and fatty acid requiring Butyrivibrio sp. isolated from the ovine rumen. J. Gen. Microbiol. 112:15-27. crossref(new window)

Hazlewood, G., P. Kemp, D. J. Lander and R. M. C. Dawson. 1976. C18 unsaturated fatty acid hydrogenation patterns of some rumen bacteria and their ability to hydrolyse exogenous phospholipid. Br. J. Nutr. 35:293-297. crossref(new window)

Houseknecht, K. L., J. P. Vanden Heuvel, S. Y. Moya-Camarena, C. P. Portocarrerro, L. W. Peck, K. P. Nickel and M. A. Belury. 1998. Conjugated linoleic acid normalizes impaired glucose tolerance in the Zucker diabetic fatty fa/fa rat. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 244:678-682. crossref(new window)

Ip, C., S. Banni, E. Angioni, G. Carta, J. McGinley, H. Thompson, D. Barbano, D. Bauman. 1999. Conjugated linoleic acidenriched butter fat alters mammary gland morphogenesis and reduces cancer risk in rats. J. Nutr. 129:2135-2142.

Jenkins, T. C. 1993. Lipid metabolism in the rumen. In Symposium of Advances in Ruminant Lipid Metabolism. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3851-3863. crossref(new window)

Kelly, M. L. and D. E. Bauman. 1996. Conjugated linoleic acid: A potent anticarcinogen found in milk fat. Proceedings Cornell Nutr. Conf. Feed Manuf., Pages 68-74. 58th Cornell Nutrition Conference, Ithaca, New York, 1996.

Kelly, M. L., J. R. Berry, D. A. Dwyer, J. M. Griinari, P. Y. Chouinard, M. E. Van Amburgh and D. E. Bauman. 1998. Dietary fatty acid sources affect conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in milk from lactating dairy cows. J. Nutr. 128:881-885.

Kemp, P. and D. J. Lander. 1984. Hydrogenation in vitro of $\alpha$- linoleinic acid to stearic acid by mixed cultures of pure strains of rumen bacteria. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130:527-533.

Kemp, P., R. W. White and D. J. Lander. 1975. The hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids by five bacterial isolates from the sheep rumen, including a new species. J. Gen. Microbiol. 90:100-114. crossref(new window)

Kemp, P., D. J. Lander and R. T. Holman. 1984. The hydrogenation of the series of methylene-interrupted cis,cis octadecadienoic acids by pure cultures of rumen bacteria. Br. J. Nutr. 52:171-177. crossref(new window)

Kepler, C. R. and S. B. Tove. 1967. Biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acid. J. Biol. Chem. 242:5686-5692.

Kepler, C. R. and S. B. Tove. 1967. Biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. III. Purification and properties of linoleate ${\Delta}12$-cis, ${\Delta}11$-trans isomerase from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. J. Biol. Chem. 242:5686-5692

Lee, K. N., D. Kritchevsky and M. W. Pariza. 1994. Conjugated linoleic acid and atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis 108:19-25. crossref(new window)

Lennarz, W. J. 1966. Lipid metabolism in the bacteria. Adv. Lipid Res. 4:175.

Miles, S. C., T. W. Scott., G. R. Russell. and R. M. Smith. 1970. Hydrogenation of $C_{18}$-unsaturated fatty acids by pure cultures of a rumen micrococcus. Austral. J. Biol. Sci. 23:1109-1113. crossref(new window)

Loor, J. J. and J. H. Herbein. 1998. Exogenous conjugated linoleic acid isomers reduce bovine milk fat concentration and yield by inhibiting de novo fatty acid synthesis. J. Nutr. 128: 2411-2419.

Mir, Z., M. L. Rushfeldt, P. S. Mir, L. J. Paterson and R. J. Weselake. 2000. Effect of dietary supplementation with either conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or linoleic acid rich oil on the CLA content of lamb tissues. Small Ruminant Res. 36:25-31. crossref(new window)

Nicolosi, R. J., E. J. Rogers, D. Kritchevsky, J. A. Scimeca and P. J. Huth. 1997. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid reduces plasma lipoproteins and early aortic atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Artery 22:266-277.

Palmquist, D. L. and T. C. Jenkins. 1980. Fat in lactation rations. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1-14. crossref(new window)

Polan, C. E., J. J. McNeill and S. B. Tove. 1964. Biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids by rumen bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 88:1056-1064.

Ritzenthaler, K., M. K. McGuire, R. Falen, T. D. Shultz and M. A. McGuire. 1998. Estimation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) intake, FASEB J. 12 A527.

Salminen, I. M., M. Mutanen, M. Jauhiainen and A. Aro. 1998. Dietary trans fatty acids increase conjugated linoleic acid levels in human serum. J. Nutr. Biochem. 9:93-98. crossref(new window)

Sasaki, H., K. Horiguchi and T. Takahashi. 2001. Effects of different concentrate and roughage ratios on ruminal balance of long chain fatty acids in sheep. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:960-965.

Shultz, T. D., B. P. Chew and W. R. Seaman. 1992. Differential stimulatory and inhibitory responses of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells to linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid in culture. Anticancer research 12:2143-2146.

Sippel, M. A., J. P. Cant and R. Spratt. 2001. The use of rumenprotected conjugated linoleic acid to reduce milk fat percentage in lactating dairy cattle. Proceedings of the Joint meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Meat Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, and Poultry Science Association, 2001, p. 193.

Song, M. K. and H. J. Sohn. 1997. Effect of oil source and treating method on in vitro fermentation characteristics and hydrogenation of C18-unsaturated fatty acids by rumen microbes. Kor. J. Anim. Nutr. feed. 21:463-474.

Song, M. K. and S. H. Choi. 1998. Effects of lipid source and addition level on rumen microbial hydrogenation of C18-unsaturated fatty acids and incorporation of oleic acid by rumen bacteria. Korean J. Anim. Sci. 40:31-42.

Verhulst, A., G. Semjen., U. Meerts., G. Janssen., G. Parmentier., S. Asselberghs., H. van Hespen and H. Eyssen. 1985. Biohydrogenation of linoleic acid by Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium bifermentans, Clostridium sordellii and Bacteroides sp. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 31:255-259. crossref(new window)

Wang, J. H. and M. K. Song. 2001. Effect of sources and levels of carbohydrates on fermentation characteristics and hydrogenation of linoleic acid by rumen bacteria in vitro. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:48-53. crossref(new window)

Wang, J. H., M. K. Song, Y. S. Son and M. B. Chang. 2002. Effect of concentrate on the formation of conjugated linoleic acid and trans-octadecenoic acid by ruminal bacteria when incubated with oilseed. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:687-694.

Wang, J. H., M. K. Song, Y. S. Son and M. B. Chang. 2002. Addition effect of seed-associated or free linseed oil on the formation of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and octadecenoic acid by ruminal bacteria in vitro. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:1115-1120. crossref(new window)

Willet, W.C., M. J. Stamper, J. E. Manson, G. A. Colditz, F. E. Speizer, B. A. Rosner, L. A. Sampson and C. H. Hennekens. 1993. Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women. The Lancet, Vol. 341, March, 6 pp. 581-585. crossref(new window)

Wu, Z., O. A. Ohazuruka and D. L. Palmquist. 1991. Ruminal synthesis biohydrogenation and digestibility of fatty acids by dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3025-3034. crossref(new window)

Yokoyama, M. T. and C. L. Davis. 1971. Hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids by Treponema (Borrelia) strain B25, a rumen spirochaete. J. Bacteriol. 107:519-527.