Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Ammonia, Urea Plus Calcium Hydroxide and Animal Urine Treatments on Chemical Composition and In sacco Degradability of Rice Straw
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Ammonia, Urea Plus Calcium Hydroxide and Animal Urine Treatments on Chemical Composition and In sacco Degradability of Rice Straw
Fadel Elseed, A.M.A.; Sekine, J.; Hishinuma, M.; Hamana, K.;
  PDF(new window)
This experiment was conducted to examine the effects on the composition and rumen degradation in sacco of rice straw treated with animal urine (1 l of 2.9 g N/kg DM straw) and urea plus calcium hydroxide (2% urea plus 0.5% /kg DM straw) as a cheap and relatively safe alternative for ammonia (3% ammonia solution/kg DM straw). Mold occurred in urine treated straw, but other treatments were apparently mold-free. All treatments significantly (p<0.05) increased CP content in the straw compared with untreated one. Ammonia-treated straw contained CP at about twice that in urine or urea-calcium hydroxide treated straw. NDF and hemicellulose contents decreased significantly (p<0.05) in all treatments, while ADF and cellulose showed no differences compared with untreated straw. The degradable fraction of DM, CP, NDF, hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly (p<0.05) increased for ammonia and urea-calcium hydroxide treatments than for urine treated or untreated straw except for CP of urine treated straw. Chemical treatment of rice straw increased the readily degradable fraction of CP, while it decreased the slowly degradable fraction for urine or urea-calcium hydroxide treated rice straw. The degradation rate of hemicellulose was significantly (p<0.05) increased for ammonia and urea-calcium hydroxide treatments compared to urine treated or untreated straw. However, no effect on cellulose degradation rate was found by any of the treatments. There was no improvement in the degradation kinetics caused by the urine treatment despite the improvement of the chemical composition. Although the improvement in rumen degradability was less in the urea-calcium hydroxide treatment than in the ammonia treatment, its use may be more desirable because it is less expensive to obtain, less hazardous nature, and readily available. For further improvement it is necessary to investigate the supplementation of slowly degradable nitrogen to ureacalcium hydroxide treated rice straw diet.
Chemical Treatment;Rice Straw;Ruminal Degradation;
 Cited by
Supplementing Maize or Soybean Hulls to Cattle Fed Rice Straw:Intake, Apparent Digestion, In situ Disappearance and Ruminal Dynamics,;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2008. vol.21. 6, pp.807-817 crossref(new window)
Utilization of Rice Straw and Different Treatments to Improve Its Feed Value for Ruminants: A Review,;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2010. vol.23. 5, pp.680-692 crossref(new window)
Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes,;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2014. vol.27. 1, pp.46-54 crossref(new window)
Performance of sheep offered ammonia, or urea-calcium hydroxide treated rice straw as an only feed, Animal Science Journal, 2004, 75, 5, 411  crossref(new windwow)
Nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation characteristic in swamp buffaloes fed on chemically treated rice straw and urea, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 2012, 44, 3, 629  crossref(new windwow)
Seasonal effect on rumen function in sheep on range in the Accra Plains of Ghana, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 2014, 46, 7, 1223  crossref(new windwow)
AOAC. 1984. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis, DC.

Buettner, M. R., V. L. Lechtenberg. K. S. Hendrixand and J. M. Hertel. 1982. Composition and digestion of ammoniated tall fescue (Festuca arundiancea Schreb.) hay. J. Anim. Sci. 54:273-178.

Chaudhry, A. S. 1998. Nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation in sheep of wheat straw treated with calcium oxide, sodium hydroxide and alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 74:315-328. crossref(new window)

Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage fiber analysis (Apparatus, Reagents, Procedure and some Application). Agricultural Hand Book NO. 379. Agricultural Research Services. USDA, Washington, DC.

Grenet, E. and P. Barry. 1990. Microbial degradation in the rumen of wheat straw and anhydrous ammonia treated wheat straw observed by electron microscopy. Reprod. Nutr. Devel. 30:533-540. crossref(new window)

Hadjipanayiotou, M., L. Verheaghe, T. Goodchild and B. Shaker. 1993. Ammoniation of straw using urea, ammonia gas or ammonium hydroxide. Livestock Res. Rural Devel. 5(3). Http://

Hasan, S., M. Shimoji and I. Goto. 1993. Improvement in the nutritive value of straw by treatment with the urine of goats. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 6:36-40.

Kamel, H. E. M., J. Sekine, T. Suga and Z. Morita. 1995. The effect of a frozen-rethawing technique on detaching firmly associated bacteria from in situ hay residues. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 73:481-483.

Leng, R. A. 1993. Quantitative ruminant nutrition. A green science. Aus. J. Agric. Res. 44:363-380. crossref(new window)

Males, J. R. 1987. Optimizing the utilization of cereal crop residues for beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 65:1124-1130.

Mason, V. C., J. E. Cook, M. S. Dhanoa, A. S. Keene, C. J. Hoadley and R. D. Hartley. 1990. Chemical composition, digestibility in vitro and bio degradability of grass hay oventreated with different amounts of ammonia. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 29:237-249. crossref(new window)

Orden, E. A., K. Yamaki, T. Ichinohe and T. Fujihara. 2000. Feeding value of ammoniated rice straw supplemented with rice bran in sheep: II. In situ rumen degradation of untreated and treated rice straw. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 13:906-912.

Orskov, E. R. and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurement weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.). 92:499-503. crossref(new window)

Orskov, E. R., F. D. Hovell and F. Mould. 1980. The use of nylon bag technique for the evaluation of feedstuff. Trop. Anim. Sci. 5:195-213.

Pradhan, R., H. Tobioka and I. Tasaki. 1997. Effect of moisture content and different level of additives on chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of rice straw. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Jpn.), 68:273-284.

Saadullah, M., M. Haque and F. Dolberg. 1980. Treating rice straw with animal urine. Trop. Anim. Prod. 5:273-277.

Saadullah, M., M. Haque and F. Dolberg 1981. Effectiveness of ammonition through urea in improving the feeding value of rice straw in ruminants. Trop. Anim. Prod. 6:30-36.

SAS. 1993. User's guide. 6th Ed., SAS Inc. Cary NC.

Sirohi, S. K. and S. N. Rai. 1999. Synergistic effect of urea and lime treatment of wheat straw on chemical composition, in sacco and in vitro digestibility. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12:1049-1053.

Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. NY.

Wuliji, T. and W. R. McManus. 1988. Colonization of alkalitreated fibrous roughages by anaerobic rumen fungi. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 1:65-71.