Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Influence of Caponization on the Carcass Characteristics in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Influence of Caponization on the Carcass Characteristics in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels
Lin, Cheng-Yung; Hsu, Jenn-Chung;
  PDF(new window)
We determined the effect of caponization on the carcass and giblet characteristics, and skin and muscle color in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Caponized birds were surgically altered at 10 weeks old and were fed growing and finishing diets ad libitum during an eighteen-week experimental period. The results showed that the percentage of dressing, heart, feet, thigh, head and neck were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the intact birds, while the capons had a higher (p<0.05) percentage of abdominal fat, intestine, back, wing and breast. Eviscerated weight, breast width, gizzard, liver and spleen ratios were not affected by the treatments. The breast skin color values for lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values in the capons were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in the intact birds, but the thigh and back skin were not significantly(p>0.05)different. Compared with the intact birds, the capons had a significantly (p<0.05) less redness (a*) values in the back skin, but were not significantly (p>0.05) different in the breast and thigh skin. The L* value of the thigh muscle was significantly (p<0.05) greater in the capons than in the intact birds, but were not significantly (p>0.05) different in breast and back muscles. The b* values in the breast, back and thigh muscles of the capons were significantly (p<0.05) greater whereas the intact birds had a higher (p<0.05) a* values in the breast, back, and thigh muscles. Moreover, our findings also indicate that the castration resulted in a significant alteration in dressing percentage, carcass region and organ percentage.
Caponization;Androgen;Carcass characteristic;Color;Giblet;
 Cited by
Effect of Caponization on Muscle Composition, Shear Value, ATP Related Compounds and Taste Appraisal in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels,Lin, Cheng-Yung;Lin, Liang-Chuan;Hsu, Jenn-Chung;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2011. vol.24. 7, pp.1026-1030 crossref(new window)
Burton, R. R. and A. H. Smith. 1972. The effect of chronic erythrocyte poly cythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 140:920-923.

Cason, J. A., D. L. Fletcher and W. H. Burke. 1987. Influence of caponization on skin pigmentation of meat broilers. Poult. Sci. 66:433-438.

Champagne, J. R., J. W. Carpenter, J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. Z. Palmer and M. Koger. 1969. Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of young bulls and steers castrated at four ages. J. Anim. Sci. 29:887-890.

Chen, K. L., C. P. Wu and Y. M. Hong. 2000a. Meat quality and carcass traits of capon in comparison with intact male and female Taiwan country chicken. J. Chinese Soc. Anim. Sci. 29:77-88. (in Chinese)

Chen, K. L., C. P. Wu and R. G. Chou. 2000b. Effect of caponization age on growth performance and postmortem change in muscle of Taiwan country chicken. Journal of the Agricultural Association of China 1:54-63. (in Chinese)

Collins, W. M., S. C. Thayer and W. C. Skoglund. 1955. Breed and strain differences in shank pigmentation in growing chickens. Poult. Sci. 34:223-228.

Dube, J. Y. and R. R. Trembley. 1974. Androgen binding in cock's tissues:properties of ear lobe protein and determination of binding of ear lobe protein and binding sites in head appendages and other tissues. Endocrinology 95:1105-1112. crossref(new window)

Fennell, M. J. and C. G. Scanes. 1992a. Inhibition of growth in chickens by testosterone, 5$\alpha$-dihydrotestosterone, and 19-nortestosterone. Poult. Sci. 71:357-366.

Fennell, M. J. and C. G. Scanes. 1992b. Effect of androgen(testosterone, 5$\alpha$-dihydrotestosterone, and 19-nortestosterone)administration on growth in turkey. Poult. Sci. 71:539-547.

Froning, G. W., J. Daddarid and T. E. Hartung. 1968. Color and myoglobin concentration in turkey meats as effected by age, sex, and strain. Poult. Sci. 47:1827-1836.

Griggs, R. C, W. Kingston, R. F. Jozefowicz, B. E. Herr, G. Forbes and D. Halliday. 1989. Effect of testosterone on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis. J. Appl. Physiol. 66:498-503.

Hill, F. W. and L. M. Dansky. 1951. The influence of diet on body composition of growing chicks. IN:Proc. Cornell Nutr. Conf. pp. 27-32.

Hillebrand, S. J. W., E. Lambody and C. H. Veerkamp. 1996. The effects of alternative electrical and mechanical stunning methods on hemorrhaging and meat quality of broiler breast and thigh muscles. Poult. Sci. 75:664-671.

Jaap, R. G. 1955. Shank color and barred plumage in columbiancolored chickens. Poult. Sci. 34:389-395.

Kemp, J. D., J. D. Crouse, W. Deweese and W. G. Moody. 1970. Effect of slaughter weight and castration on carcass characteristics of lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 30:348-354.

Koch, T. and E. Possa. 1973. Anatomy of the chicken and domestic birds. p.12. Humbaldt University, West Germany.

Lin, C. C. 1999. Effects of different age of injecting estradiol into Taiwan country chicken on the agonistic behavior, sexual behavior, social status, economic traits and texture properties of breast meat in the later period of growing and the maturate. Master thesis, Department of Animal Science, Nationial Chung-Hsing University, Taiwan, ROC. (in Chinese)

Lin, C. Y. and J. C. Hsu. 2002a. Effects of surgical caponization on growth performance, fiber diameter and some physical properties of muscles in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:401-405.

Lin, C. Y. and J. C. Hsu. 2002b. Comparison of some selected growth, physiological and bone characteristics of capon, slip and intact birds in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. (Accepted)

Lobley, G. E., A. Connell, V. Buchan, P. A. Skene and J. M. Fletcher. 1987. Administration of testosterone to wether lambs:effects on protein and energy metabolism and growth hormone status. J. Endocrinology 115:439-446. crossref(new window)

Lyon, L. E., B. G. Lyon, C. E. Davis and W. E. Townsend. 1980. Texture profile analysis of patties made from mixed and flakecut mechanically debone. Poult. Sci. 59:69-76.

Lyon, C. E. and J. A. Cason. 1995. Effect of water chilling on objective color of bruised and unbruised broiler tissue. Poult. Sci. 74:1894-1899.

Mast, M. G., H. C. Jordan and J. H. Macneil. 1981. The effect of partial and complete caponization on growth rate, yield, and selected physical and sensory attributes of cockerels. Poult. Sci. 60:1827-1833.

Megally, M. A., R. B. Harrington and W. J. Stadelman. 1969. The effect of estradiol-17 beta monopalmitate on yields and quality of chicken roasters. Poult. Sci. 48:130-136.

Mickelberry, W. C. 1968. Influence of dietary fats and estradiol-17 beta monopalmitate upon the edible meat yield of roaster chickens. Poult. Sci. 47:1254-1257.

Miller, L. E., L. M. Krista, J. Brake, S. L. Bolden, G. R. McDaniel and E. Mora. 1985. Effects of caponization on body weight, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular variables in hypertensive and hypotensive turkey lines. Poult. Sci. 64:1002-1014.

Miltenburg, G. A. J., Th. Wensing, F. J. M. Smulders and H. J. Breukink. 1992. Relationship between blood hemoglobin, plasma and tissue iron, muscle heme pigment, and carcass color of veal. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2766-2772.

Pearce, J. 1977. Effect of testosterone on hepatic lipid metabolism in the mature female domestic fowl. J. Endocrinology 75:343-344. crossref(new window)

Prescott, J. H. D. and G. E. Lamming. 1964. The effects of castration on meat production in cattle, sheep and pigs. J. Agr. Sci. 63:341-357. crossref(new window)

SAS. 1988. SAS user guide:Statistics. SAS Inst., Cary, NC.

Sauerwein, H. and H. H. D. Meyer. 1989. Androgen and estrogen receptors in bovine skeletal muscle: Relation to steroidinduced allometric muscle growth. J. Anim. Sci. 67:206-212.

Siers, D. G. 1975. Live and carcass traits in individually fed Yorkshire boars, barrows and gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 41:522-526.

Snochowski, M., K. Lundstrom, E. Dahlberg, H. Peterson and L. E. Edqvist. 1981. Androgen and glucocorticoid receptors in porcine skeletal muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 53:80-90.

Solberg, M. 1968. Factor affecting fresh meat color. Proc. Meat Ind Res. Conf. pp. 32-40.

Stewart, P. A. and K. W. Washburn. 1983. Variation in growth hormone, triiodthyroxine and lipogenic enzyme activity in broiler strains differing in growth and fatness. Growth 47:411-425.

Troutt, E. S., M. C. Hunt, D. E. Johnson, J. R. Claus, C. L. Kastner, D. H. Kropf and S. Stroda. 1992. Chemizal, physical and sensory characterization of ground beef containing 5 to 30 percent fat. J. Food. Sci. 57:25-29. crossref(new window)

Wang, H. T. 2001. Effects of surgical caponization and administration of estradiol to chicken embryos on daily activity, agonistic behavior, growth performance, carcass traits and sensory evaluation of males Taiwan country chickens. Master thesis. Graduate institute of Animal Science, National Chung-Hsing University, Taiwan, ROC. (in Chinese)

Watson, M. J. 1969. The effects of castration on the growth and meat quality of grazing cattle. Australian J. Exp. Agr. Anim. Hus. 9:64-72.

Wismer-Pedersen, J. 1968. Boars as meat producers. World Review of Anim. Prod. 4:101-110.

York, L. R, and J. D. Mitchell. 1969. The effect of estradiol-17$\beta$-monopalmiate and surgical caponization on production efficiencies, yields and organic characteristics of chicken broiler. Poult. Sci. 48:1532-1536.

Yoshitaka, O., I. Hisao and T. Hitoshi. 1982. Studies on the growth skeletal muscle of capon 2. Effects of castration on muscle weights in different body parts and individual muscle weight. Sci. Bull. Fac. Agr., Kyushu Univ. pp. 27-30.