Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Dietary Calcium and Non-phytin Phosphorus Interaction on Growth, Bone Mineralization and Mineral Retention in Broiler Starter Chicks
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Dietary Calcium and Non-phytin Phosphorus Interaction on Growth, Bone Mineralization and Mineral Retention in Broiler Starter Chicks
Rao, S.V. Rama; Raju, M.V.L.N.; Reddy, M.R.; Pavani, P.; Sunder, G. Shyam; Sharma, R.P.;
  PDF(new window)
An experiment was conducted to study the requirement of calcium (Ca) and non-phytin phosphorus (NPP) in commercial broilers during starter phase. Seven hundred and twenty day-old Vencob male broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 144 stainless steel battery brooders, 5 birds in each. Four levels each of Ca (6, 7, 8, and 9 g/kg) and NPP (3, 3.5, 4, and 4.5 g/kg diet) were fed in a factorial design in a corn-soya basal diet. Levels of dicalcium phosphate and oyster shell grit were adjusted to obtain the desired levels of Ca and NPP. Each diet was fed ad libidum to chicks in 9 battery brooders from one d to 21 d of age. Body weight gain and feed intake were depressed (p<0.01) by increasing the dietary Ca level (8 and 9 g/kg) at lower levels of NPP (3 and 3.5 g/kg diet). The growth depression observed at lower NPP level was alleviated by reducing the Ca content to 6 g/kg diet. The tibia ash content and tibia breaking strength increased with increase in both Ca (>6 g/kg) and NPP (>3 g/kg) levels. The leg abnormality score decreased (p<0.01) with increase in NPP content in the diet at all levels of Ca tested. The serum Ca and inorganic P levels were increased with increase in the level of the respective mineral in the diet, but the serum concentration of Ca and P were inversely related to the level of NPP and Ca, respectively /kg diet. In general, the excretion of macro minerals (Ca, and P), and micro minerals {zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu)} was significantly lower at lower levels of Ca and NPP tested (6 and 3 g/kg diet, respectively). The mineral excretion increased with increase in dietary Ca and NPP levels, more conspicuously at the disproportionate ratio of these minerals (>2:1, Ca and NPP). Similarly, the retention of Zn, Mn, and Fe in liver was significantly higher (p<0.01) at lower levels of Ca and NPP tested. Results from this study indicate that the commercial broilers do not require more than 3 g NPP and 6g Ca/kg diet during starter phase (up to 21 d of age) for optimum weight gain, feed efficiency and utilization of Ca, P, Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. However, the requirements of these minerals for optimum bone mineralization were higher than the levels suggested above.
Calcium;Non-phytin Phosphorus;Broilers Growth;Tibia Ash;Tibia Breaking Strength;Trace Mineral Retention;
 Cited by
Growth, Bone Mineralization and Mineral Excretion in Broiler Starter Chicks Fed Varied Concentrations of Cholecalciferol,;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2007. vol.20. 2, pp.237-244 crossref(new window)
Effects of $1{\alpha}$-Hydroxycholecalciferol and Phytase on Growth Performance, Tibia Parameter and Meat Quality of 1- to 21-d-old Broilers,;;;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2009. vol.22. 6, pp.857-864 crossref(new window)
Effect of High Concentrations of Cholecalciferol on Growth, Bone Mineralization, and Mineral Retention in Broiler Chicks Fed Suboptimal Concentrations of Calcium and Nonphytate Phosphorus, The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 2006, 15, 4, 493  crossref(new windwow)
Non-phytate phosphorus requirements and efficacy of a genetically engineered yeast phytase in male lingnan yellow broilers from 1 to 21 days of age, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2011, 95, 1, 47  crossref(new windwow)
Ademosun, A. A., and I. O., Kalango. 1973. Effect of calcium and phosphorus levels on the performance of layers in Nigeria 1. Egg production, egg shell quality, feed intake and body weight. Poul. Sci. 54: 1383.

Ahmad, N., M. B. Sial and M. Akram. 1982. Influence of varying levels of protein and calcium on the performance of broiler chicks. 3. Pakistan J. Sci. Res., 34(3-4): 71.

Ballam, G. C., T. S. Nelson and L.K. Kirby. 1984. Effect of fibre and phytate source and of calcium and phosphorus level on phytate hydrolysis in the chick. Poult. Sci. 63:333.

Burnell, T. W., G. L. Cronwell and T. S. Stahly. 1990. Effect of particle size on the biological availability of calcium and phosphorus in deflurinated phosphate for chicks. Poult. Sci. 69:1110.

Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11:1. crossref(new window)

Eardman, J. W. Jr. and M. De Paepe. 1979. Oil seed phytates: Nutritional implications. J. Am. Oil Chemist's Soc. 56: 736. crossref(new window)

Edwards, H. M. and J. R. Veltmann, 1983. The role of calcium and phosphorus in the etiology of tibial dyschondroplasia in young chicks. J. Nutri. 113:1568.

Fiske, H. and Y. Subba Row. 1925. The colorimetric determination of phosphorus. J. Biol. Chem. 66, 375.

Florescu, S. 1972. Effect of protein intake and calcium and phosphorus metabolism in broilers. Lucraile stiintifice ale Institututilui de Cercetari pentru Nutritie Animala, 1: 471.

Georgievskii, V. I., B. N. Annenkov and V. I. Samokhin. 1982. Mineral Nutrition of Animals, Butterworths, London.

Haugh, H. and H. J. Lantzsch. 1983. Sensitive method for the rapid determination of phytate in cereals and cereal products. J. Sci. Food and Agric. 34:1423. crossref(new window)

Hossain, S., A. G. Bertechini and P. T. C. Nobre. 1994. Effect of natural zeolite and amounts of calcium on performance and characteristics of plasma and tibia of broiler fowls. Arquino-Brasileiro-de-Medicina-Veterinaria-e-Zootecnia, 46(5):545.

Hulan, H. W., G. De Groote, G. Fontaine, G. De. Munter, K. B. Mc Rae and F. G. Proudfoot. 1986. Effect of different totals and ratios of dietary calcium and phosphorus on the performance and incidence of leg abnormalities in male broiler chickens derived from normal and dwarf maternal genotypes. Canadian J. Anim. Sci. 66:167.

Hulan, H. W., G. De Groote, G. Fontaine, G. De. Munter, K. B. Mc Rae and F. G. Proudfoot. 1985. The effect of different totals and ratios of dietary calcium and phosphorus on the performance and incidence of leg abnormalities in male and female broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 64:1157.

Kiaei, M. M. and W. Michie. 1994. Effects of calcium, protein and fat on dietary selection, growth rate and bone development of the choice fed broiler chicks. Archive of the Faculty-of Veterinary Medicine 6:228.

Kornegay, E. T., D. M. Denbow, Z. Yi and V. Ravindran. 1996. Response of broilers to greaded levels of Natuphos phytase added to corn-soybean meal based diets containing three levels of non-phytate phosphorus. Br. J. Nutr. 75, 839. crossref(new window)

Kr-steva-E., A. Aleksiev and L. Vasileva. 1986. Effect of the amount and the ratio of calcium and zinc in the feeding of broiler chickens. Zhivotnov dni-Nauki, 23(10):37.

Lin, H. S., H. Nanikung, J. S. Um, K. R. Kang, B. S. Kim and I. K. Paik. 2001. The effects of phytase supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens fed diets with different levels of non-phytin phosphorus. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 14:250.

Mohamed, M. A. 1998. Effect of reducing calcium and supplemental phosphorus levels on performance and bone parameters of broiler chicks. Egyptian Poult. Sci. J. 18: 47.

Muramoto, T., S. Fujimura, M. Kadowaki and T. Ishibashi. 1998. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of native chicken, Hinai-jidori (Rhode island Red x Hinai-dori). Anim. Sci. Tech. 69 (9):861.

Nelson, T. S. 1967. The utilization of phytin phosphorus by poultry. A review. Poult. Sci. 46:862.

Orban, J. I., D. A. Roland Sr. 1990. Response of four broiler strains of dietary phosphorus above and below the requirement when brooded at two temperatures. Poult. Sci. 69: 442.

Paik, I. K. 2000. Nutritional management for environment friendly animal production. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 13 (Special Issue): 302.

Qian, H., E. T. Kornegay, D. M. Denbow. 1997. Utilization of phytin phosphorus as calcium as influenced by microbial phytase, cholecalciferol and calcium:total phosphorus ratio in broiler diet. Poult. Sci. 76, 37.

Rama Rao, S. V., V. Ramasubba Reddy and V. Ravindra Reddy. 1999. Non-phytin phosphorus requirements of commercial broilers and White Leghorn layers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 80:1. crossref(new window)

Rensburg, W. H. J., G. A. Van Smith and W. H. J. Van Rensburg. 1992. The effect of different ratios of calcium and phosphorus on the availability of hosphorus for broilers. In Proceedings, 19th World's Poultry Congress, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 19-24th September, 1992, Vol. 1: 627.

Russell, L. and McDowell. 1992. Minerals in Animals and Human Nutrition, Academic Press, New York.

Scheideler, S. E. and J. L. Sell. 1987. Utilization of phytate phosphorus in laying hens as influenced by dietary phosphorus and calcium. Nutr. Rep. Inter. 35, 1073.

Scheideler, S. E., D. V. Rives, J. D. Garlich and P. R. Ferket. 1995. Dietary calcium and phosphorus effects on broiler performance and the incidence of sudden death syndrome mortality. Poult. Sci. 74:2011.

Smith, O. B., and E. Kabaija. 1985. Effect of dietary calcium and wide calcium-phosphorus ratios in broiler diets. Poult. Sci. 64: 1713.

Snedecor, G. W., and W. G. Cochran. 1980. Statistical Methods. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.

Tortuero, F., E. Fernandez and L. Martin. 1994. Effect of different amounts of phosphorus in feeds on growth, skeletal development and mineral metabolism in chickens. Avances-en-Alimentacion-y-Mejora-Animal 34(6):3.

Underwood, E. J. 1981. The mineral Nutrition of Livestock. Second ed., Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.

Waldroup, P. W., C. B., Ammereman and R. H. Harms. 1962. Comparison of the requirements of battery and floor growth chicks for calcium and phosphorus. Poult. Sci. 42:982.

Waldroup, P. W., C. B. Ammerman and R. H. Harms. 1963. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of finishing broilers using phosphorus sources of low and high availability. Poult. Sci. 42:752.

Waldroup, P. W., R. J. Mitchell and Z. B. Johnson. 1975. The phosphorus needs of a young broiler chicks in relationship to dietary nutrient density level. Poult. Sci. 54:436.

Watson, I. T., C. B. Ammerman, S. M. Miller and R. H. Harms. 1970. Biological assay of inorganic manganese for chicks. Poult. Sci. 49:1548.

Yu, W. H., R. P. Lin and A. L. Xu. 1990. Calcium and available phosphorus requirements of Taiwan small type country chicken. J. Chinese Soc. Anim. Sci. 19:107.