AOAC. 1984. Official methods of the analysis of the association of official analytical chemists, (Ed. Sindey Williams), 14th ed. USA.
Cere, K. R. and A. P. Schinckel. 1995. Carcass and performance response to feeding betaine in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73 (suppl. 1):82 (Abstr.).
Campbell, R. G., D. J. Cadogan and W. C. Morly. 1995. Interrelationships between dietary methionine and betaine on the growth performance of pigs from 65-100 kg. Feedstuffs. 7:12-13.
Esteve, G E. and S. Mack. 2000. The effect of dl-methionine and betaine on growth performance and carcass characteristics in broilers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 87:85-93.
Fernández, C., L. Gallego and C. J. Lopez-Bote. 1998. Effect of betaine on fat content in growing lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 73:329-338.
Han, I. K. and J. H. Kim. 1995. The role of carnitine in early weaned piglet.Proceeding of international conference on pig production, Beijing, China, 6-8 July 1998, 9-16.
Hall, D. D. Betafin a tool to improve profitability. Betafin news. 2:4.
Kim, S. K., K. H. Choi and Y. C. Kim. 2003. Effect of acute betaine administration on hepatic metabolism of S-amino acids in rats and mice. Biochem. Pharmacol. 65(9):1565-1574.
Kitt, S. J., P. S. Miller, A. J. Lewis and H.-Y. Chen. 1999. Effects of betaine and space allocation on growth performance, plasma urea concentration, and carcass characteristics of growing and finishing barrows. J. Anim. Sci. 77(Suppl. 1):53(Abstr.).
Lawrence, B. V., A. P. Schinckel, O. Adeola and K. Cera. 2002. Impact of betaine on pig finishing performance and carcass composition. J. Anim. Sci. 80(2):475-482.
Lowry, K. R., O. A. Izquterdo and D. H. Baker. 1987. Efficacy of betaine relative to choline as a dietary methyl donor. Poult. Sci. 66:35.
Lu, Q., Z. Q. Li and X. Y. Zhou. 2001. Effect of betaine on feed intake,growth and meat quilty and approach to mechanism of effects in colossma sp. Journal of Zhejiang Ocean University (Natural Science). 20:130-136.
Matthews J. O., L. L. Southern, J. E. Pontif, A. D. Higbie and T. D. Bidner. 1998. Interactive effects of betaine, crude protein, and net energy in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 76(9):2444-2455.
Matthews, J. O., L. L. Southern, A. D. Higbie, M. A. Persica and T. D. Bidner. 2001. Effects of betaine on growth, carcass characteristics, pork quality, and plasma metabolites of finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 79(3):722-728.
NPPC. 2000. Pork composition and quality assessment procedures. NPPC, Des Moines, IA.
Peter, B. 1994. Designer nutrition for pigs: Feeding against backfat. Feed International. 5:38.
Puchala, R., T. Sahlu, M. J. Herselman and J. J. Davis. 1995. Influence of betaine on blood metabolites of Alpine and Angora kids. Small Rum. Res. 18(2):137-143.
SAS. 1989. SAS/STAT User's Guide, Version 6.04th. SAS Institute Inc., N. C. Cary.
Schrama, J. W., M. J. W. Heetkamp, P. H. Simmins and W. J. J. Gerrits. 2003. Dietary betaine supplementation affects energy metabolism of pigs. J. Anim. Sc. 81(5):1202-1209.
Sutton, D. S., M. Ellis, Y. Lan, F. K. McKeith and E. R. Wilson. 1997. Influence of Slaughter Weight and Stress Gene Genotype on the Water-holding Capacity and Protein Gel Characteristics of Three Porcine Muscles. Meat Sci. 46(2):173-180.
Smith, J. W. 1995. The effects of sipplementation growingfinishing swine diets with betaine and (or) choline on growth an carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 73:83.
Trout, G. R. and D. A. Gutzke. 1996. A Simple, Rapid Preparative Method for Isolating and Purifying Oxymyoglobin. Meat Sci. 43(1):1-13.
Verreschi, D. C., R. H. S. Souza, P. V. R. Logato, K. K. Iseki and R. T. Freitas. 2000. Effects of dietary betaine on lipid metabolism of the pacus, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Holmberg (1817) in laboratory conditions. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 126:152.
Wang, Y. Z. and Z. R. Xu. 2001. Effect of betaine on reparitition of carcass fat in growing and finishing pigs and approach to it's mechanism. Acta Veterinria et Zootechnica Sinca. (in chinese) 32(2):122-128.
Xu, Z. R. and J. Feng. 1998. Studies on effects of Betain on carcass characteristics in finishing swine.Acta Veterinria et Zootechnica Sinca. (in chinese) 29(5):397-405.
Yancey, P. H., M. E. Clar, S. C. Hand, R. D. Bowlus and G. N. Somero. 1982. Living with water stress: Evaluation of osmolyte systems. Sci. 217:1214-1223.
Zhan, X. A. and Z. R. Xu. 1999. Effect of betaine on meat quilty and approach mechanism of the effects in finishing broilers. Journal of Zhejiang University (in chinese) 25(6):611-614.
Zulkifli, I., S. A. Mysahra and L. Z. Jin. 2004. Effect of betaine on growth performance and carcass characteristics in growing pigs. Asain-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. vol. 17(2):224-249.