Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Genetic Relationship between Milk Production, Calving Ease and Days Open at First Parity in Holstein Cows
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Genetic Relationship between Milk Production, Calving Ease and Days Open at First Parity in Holstein Cows
Lee, D.H.; Han, K.J.;
  PDF(new window)
Data containing 14,188 lactation and reproductive records of Korean Holstein cows at first parity distributed across 3,734 herd-year-season groups were analyzed to get genetic (co)variance estimates for milk yield, fat yield, calving ease, and days open. Milk and Fat yields were adjusted to 305 d. Heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated in two different animal models on which were included direct genetic effects (Model 1) and direct+maternal genetic effects (Model 2) using REML algorithms. Milk and fat yields were affected by age at first calving as linear and quadratic. Heritability estimates of direct effects were 0.25 for milk yield, 0.17 for fat yield, 0.03 for calving ease and 0.03 for days open in Model 2. These estimates for maternal effects were 0.05, 0.08, 0.04 and less than 0.01 for each corresponding trait. Milk productions at first lactation were to show genetically favorable correlation with calving ease and days open for direct genetic effects (-0.24 - -0.11). Moreover, calving ease was correlated with days open of 0.30 for direct genetic effects. Correlations between direct and maternal effects for each trait were negatively correlated (-0.63 - -0.32). This study suggested that maternal additive genetic variance would be not ignorable for genetic evaluation of milk production as well as reproductive traits such as calving ease and days open at first parity. Furthermore, difficult calving would genetically influence the next conception.
Genetic Parameters;Korean Holstein;Reproductive Performance;Calving Ease;Days Open;
 Cited by
Abdallah, J. M. and B. T. McDaniel. 2000. Genetic parameters and trends of milk, fat, days open, and body weight after calving in North Carolina experimental herds. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1364-1370.

Albuquerque, L. G., J. F. Keown and L. D. VanVleck. 1998. Variance of direct genetic effects, maternal genetic effects, and cytoplasmic inheritance effects for milk yield, fat yield, and fat percentage. J. Dairy Sci. 81:544-549.

Carner, P., A. Albera, R. Dal Zotto, A. F. Groen, M. Bona and G. Bittante. 2000. Genetic parameters for direct and maternal calving ability over parities in Piedmontese cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2532-2539.

Dechow, C. D., G. W. Rogers and J. S. Clay. 2001. Heritabilities and correlations among body condition scores, production traits, and Reproductive performance. J. Dairy Sci. 84:266-275.

Dematawewa, C. M. B. and P. J. Berger. 1998. Genetic and phenotypic parameters for 305-day yield, fertility and survival in Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2700-2709.

Dong, M. C. and L. D. VanVleck. 1989. Estimates of genetic and environmental (co)variances for first lactation milk yield, survival, and calving interval. J. Dairy Sci. 72:678-684.

Dong, M. C., L. D. VanVleck and G. R. Wiggans. 1988. Effect of relationships on estimates of variance components with an animal model and restricted maximum likelihood. J. Dairy Sci. 71:3047-3056.

Dwyer, D. J., L. R. Shaeffer and B. W. Kennedy. 1986. Bias due to corrective mating in sire evaluation for calving ease. J. Dairy Sci. 69:794-799.

Erb, H. N., R. D. Smith, P. A. Oltenacu, C. L. Guard, R. B. Hillman, P. A. Powers, M. C. Smith and M. E. White. 1985. Path model of reproductive disorders and performance, milk fever, mastitis, milk yield, and culling in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 68:3337-3349.

Gengler, H., A. Tijani, G. R. Wiggans, C. P. Van Tassell and J. C. Philpot. 1999. Estimation of (co)variances of test day yields for first lactation Holsteins in the United States. J. Dairy Sci. 82(Jan): provided only on Web (

Hageman, W. H., G. E. Shook and W. J. Tyler. 1991. Reproductive performance in genetic lines selected for high or average milk yield. J. Dairy Sci. 74:4366-4376.

Lee, D. H. 2001. Comparison of Genetic Evaluations for Weaning Weight and Carcass Traits using Threshold Model with Bayesian Inference and AI-REML in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle). J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor.) 43(3):277-292.

Lee, D. H. 2002. Estimation of genetic parameters for calving ease by heifers and cows using multi-trait threshold animal models with Bayesian approach. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:1085-1090.

Luo, M. F., P. J. Boettcher, J. C. M. Dekkers and L. R. Schaeffer. Bayesian analysis for estimation of genetic parameters of calving ease and stillbirth for Canadian Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 82(Aug): provided only on Web (

Makuza, S. M. and B. T. McDaniel. 1996. Effects of days dry, previous days open, and current days open on milk yields of cows in Zimbabwe and North Carolina. J. Dairy Sci. 79:702-709.

Moore, R. K., B. W. Kennedy, L. R. Schaeffer and L. E. Moxely. 1991. Relationship between age and body weight and production in first lactation Ayrshires and Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 74:269-278.

Pirlo, G., F. Miglior and M. Speroni. 2000. Effect of age at first calving on production traits and on difference between milk yield returns and rearing costs in Italian Holsteins. J Dairy Sci. 83:603-608.

Raheja, K. L., E. B. Burnside and L. R. Schaeffer. 1989. Relationships between fertility and production in Holstein dairy cattle in different lactations. J. Dairy Sci. 72:2670-2678.

Roman, R. M. and C. J. Wilcox. 2000. Bivariate animal model estimates of genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlations for production, reproduction, and somatic cells in Jerseys. J. Dairy Sci. 83:829-835.

Schutz, M. M., A. E. Freeman, D. C. Beitz and J. E. Mayfield. 1992. The importance of maternal lineage on milk yield traits of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 75:1331-1341.

Schutz, M. M., L. B. Hansen, G. R. Steuernagel, J. K. Reneau and A. L. Kuck. 1990. Genetic parameters for somatic cells, protein and fat in milk for Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 73:494-502.

Seykora, A. J. and B. T. McDaniel. 1983. Heritabilities and correlations of lactation yields and fertility for Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 66:1486-1493.

Simerl, N. A., C. J. Wilcox and W. W. Thatcher. 1992. Postpartum performance of dairy heifer freshening at young ages. J. Dairy Sci. 75:590-595.

Thompson, J. R., E. J. Pollak and C. L. Pelissier. 1983. Interrelationships of parturition problems, production of subsequent lactation, reproduction, and age at first calving. J. Dairy Sci. 66:1119-1127.

Tijani, A., G. R. Wiggans, C. P. Van Tassell, J. C. Philpot and N. Gengler. 1999. Use of (co)variance functions to describe (co)variances for test day yield. J. Dairy Sci. 82(Jan):provided only on Web (

Varona, L., I. Misztal and J. K. Bertrand. 1999. Threshold-linear versus linear-linear analysis of birth weight and calving ease using an animal model: I. Variance component estimation. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1994-2002.

Weigel, K. A. and R. Rekaya. 2000. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits of Holstein cattle in California and Minnesota. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1072-1080.

Weller, J. I., I. Misztal and D. Gianola. 1988. Genetic analysis of dystocia and calf mortality in Israeli-Holsteins by threshold and linear models. J. Dairy Sci. 71:2491-2501.

Wiggans, G. R., C. P. VanTassell, J. C. Philpot and I. Misztal. 2002. Comparison of Dystocia evaluations from sire and sirematernal grandsire threshold models. 7th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. Communication No 20-17.

Willham, R. L. 1963. The covariances between relatives for characters composed of components contributed by related individuals. Biometrics 19:18-27. crossref(new window)