Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Feeding Dry Sows Ad libitum with High Fibre Diets
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Feeding Dry Sows Ad libitum with High Fibre Diets
Ru, Y.J.; Bao, Y.M.;
  PDF(new window)
Currently commercial dry sows are housed in individual stalls and subject to restricted feeding. These sows often show stereotypic behaviours which increase their maintenance energy requirement. Group housing is desirable to improve animal welfare and public perception. However, under restricted feeding systems, group-housed dry sows are also aggressive. The feed intake of these sows is variable, depending on their social rank, which results in different milk production and variable piglet performance. These problems can be solved by ad libitum feeding systems, but the large capacity of intake by dry sows will not allow this feeding system to be practical as high feeding level during pregnancy can reduce reproduction performance of sows. Current research indicates that feeding high fibre diets to dry sows enables sows to be fed ad libitum, but the effect of dietary fibre on feed intake and nutrient utilisation is dependent on the quality of fibre sources. Most research has focused on sugar beet pulp, straw, lucerne meal and by-products, but there is a need to identify and evaluate some widely available and cheap fibre materials and feed grains for developing the best strategy to control nutrient intake of dry sows while feeding ad libitum.
Pigs;Fibre Sources;Reproduction;Nutrition;Animal Welfare;
 Cited by
Group gestation housing with individual feeding—I: How feeding regime, resource allocation, and genetic factors affect sow welfare, Livestock Science, 2013, 152, 2-3, 208  crossref(new windwow)
‘Freedom from hunger’ and preventing obesity: the animal welfare implications of reducing food quantity or quality, Animal Behaviour, 2009, 77, 2, 275  crossref(new windwow)
Anon. 1999. The Welfare of Pigs. Regulations in the Netherlands. Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries. Ede.

Appleby, M. C. and A. B. Lawrence. 1987. Food restriction as a cause of stereotypic behaviour in tethered gilts. Anim. Prod. 45:103-110.

ARC. 1981. The nutrient requirements of pigs. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux. Slough.

Bach Knudsen, K. E., B. Borg Jensen and H. Inge. 1993. Digestion of polysaccharides and other major components in the small and large intestine of pigs fed on diets consisting of oat fractions rich in beta D-glucan. Br. J. Nutr. 70:537-556.

Bach Knudsen, K. E., S. Steenfeldt, C. F. Borsting and B. O. Eggum. 1995. The nutritive value of decorticated mill fractions of wheat. 1. Chemical composition of raw and enzyme treated fractions and balance experiments with rats. Anim. Feed Sci. Techn. 52:205-225.

Baird, D. M., H. C. McCampbell and J. R. Allison. 1969. Effect of fibre source on swine growth and digestibility. J. Anim. Sci. 29:129-130.

Baker, R. A. 1994. Potential dietary benefits of citrus pectin and fibre. Food Techn. Nov. 1994. 133-139.

Barnett, J. L., T. S. Chamberlain, P. H. Hemsworth and I. Farran. 1999. Variation in biological traits of outdoor sows. In: Manipulating Pig Production VII. (Ed. P. D. Cranwell) Australasian Pig Science Association. Adelaide p. 33

Barnett, J. L. and P. C. Glatz. 2001. The effect of housing on behaviour and physiology of pigs and poultry. Proc. of the conference 'Farm Animals in research-can we meet the demands of ethics, welfare, science and industry'. (Ed. R. Baker, M. Fisher and P. Hemsorth). Waite and Roseworthy Campus, University of Adelaide, Australia. pp. 45-55.

Barnett, J. L. and I. A.Taylor. 1995. Turn-around stalls and the welfare of pigs. In: Manipulating Pig Production V. (Ed. P. D. Cranwell) Australasian Pig Science Association. Canberra p. 22.

Barnett, J. L., C. G. Winfield, G. M. Cronin, P. H. Hemsworth and A. M. Dewar. 1985. The effect of individual and group housing on behavioural and physiological responses related to welfare of pregnant pigs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 14:149-161.

Baxter, M. A. 1986. The design of the feeding environment for the pig. PhD Thesis, University of Aberdeen. UK.

Braddock, R. J. and T. R. Graumlich. 1981. Composition of fibre from citrus peel, membrane, juice vesicles and seeds. Lebensmittel Wissenschaftu. Tchnology 14:229-231.

Brouns, F., S. A. Edwards and P. R. English. 1995. Influence of fibrous feed ingredients on voluntary intake of dry sows. Anim. Feed Sci. Techn. 54:301-313.

Broom, D. M. and M. J. Potter. 1984. Factors affecting the occurrence of stereotypies in stall-housed dry sows. Proc. Intern. Cong. Applied Ethology in Farm Animals. (Ed. J. Unshelm, G. Van Putten, K. Zeeb, K.T.B.L.). pp. 229-231. Darmstadt.

Brouns, F. and S. A. Edwards. 1994. Social rank and feeding behaviour of group-housed sows fed competitively or ad libitum. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 39:225-235.

Brouns, F., S. A. Edwards and P. R. English. 1991a. Fibrous raw materials in sow diets: Effects on voluntary food intake, digestibility and diurnal activity patterns. Anim. Prod. 52:598.

Brouns, F., S. A. Edwards and P. R. English. 1992b. Effects of unmolassed sugar-beet pulp on regulation of voluntary food intake in pigs. Anim. Prod. 54:487.

Brouns, F., S. A. Edwards and P. R. English. 1994. Effect of dietary fibre and feeding system on activity and oral behaviour of group housed gilts. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 39:215-223.

Brouns, F., S. A. Edwards and P. R. English. 1997. The effect of dietary inclusion of sugar-beet pulp on the feeding behaviour of dry sows. Anim. Sci. 65:129-133.

Carter, D. I., J. D. Crenshaw, P. M. Swantek, R. L. Harrold and R. C. Zimprich. 1987. The effect of fibre intake by gravid swine during three consecutive parities on sow and litter performance. J. Anim. Sci. 65:89.

Cherbut, C. and Y. Ruckebusch. 1985. The effect of indigestible particles on digestive transit time and colonic motility in dogs and pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 53:549-5577. crossref(new window)

Cole, D. J. A. and S. A. Chadd. 1989. In: Voluntary Feed Intake of Pigs. (Ed. M. A. Varley and J. M. Forbes). Occasional publication number 13, Br. Soc. Anim. Prod.

Cowling, E. B. and W. Brown. 1969. In: Cellulases and Their Applications. (Ed. G. J. Hajny and E. T. Reese). p. 152. Washington DC.

Cronin, G. M. and P. R. Wiepkema. 1984. An analysis of stereotyped behaviour in tethered sows. Ann. Rech. Vet. 15:263-270.

Danielson, D. M. and J. J. Noonan. 1975. Roughages in swine gestation diets. J. Anim. Sci. 34:94-99.

Deutsch, J. A., M. F. Gonzalez and W. G. Young. 1980. Two factors control meal size. Brain Res. Bulletin 5:55-57.

Dourmad, J. Y. 1991. Effect of feeding level in the gilt during pregnancy on voluntary feed intake during lactation and changes in body composition during gestation and lactation. ivestock Prod. Sci. 27:309-319. crossref(new window)

Dourmad, J. Y., M. Etienne and J. Noblet. 1996. Reconstitution of body reserves in multiparous sows during pregnancy: effect of energy intake during pregnancy and mobilisation during the previous lactation. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2211-2219.

Dourmad, J. Y., M. Etienne, A. Prunier and J. Noblet. 1994. The effect of energy and protein intake of sows on their longevity: A Review. Livestock Prod. Sci. 40:87-97.

Eastwood, M. A. 1988. Food, drugs, bile acid enterobacterial interactions. In: Diseases of the Colon, Rectum and the Anal Canal. (Ed J. B. Kirsner and R. G. Shorter). pp. 133-157. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Eastwood, M. A. 1992. The physiological effect of dietary fibre: an update. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 12:19-35. crossref(new window)

Edwards, S. A. 1998. Nutrition of the rearing gilt and sow. In: Progress in Pig Science. (Ed. J. Wiseman, M. A. Varley and J. P. Chadwick). pp. 361-382. Nottingham University Press, UK.

Edwards, S. A., A. G. Taylor and V. R. Fowler. 1991. Effects of high inclusion levels of sugar beet pulp in diets for dry sows. Anim. Prod. 52:598.

Edwards, S. A., C. Marconnet, A. G. Taylor and A. Cadenhead. 1992. Voluntary intake and digestibility of distillery products for dry sows. Anim. Prod. 54:486.

Ensminger, M. E. and C. G. Olentine. 1978. Feeds and Nutrition. The Ensminger Publishing Co., Clovis, CA.

Etienne, M. 1987. Utilisation of high fibre feeds and cereals by sows. A Review. Livestock Prod. Sci. 16:229-242.

Everts, H. 1991. The effect of feeding different sources of crude fibre during pregnancy on the reproductive performance of sows. Anim. Prod. 52:175-184.

Ewbank, R. and G. B. Meese. 1971. Aggressive behaviour in groups of domesticated pigs on removal and return of individuals. Anim. Prod. 13:685-693.

Ewing, W. N. 1997. The Feeds Directory. Context, Northern Ireland.

Falk, J. L. 1971. The nature and determinants of adjunctive behaviour. Physiol. Behav. 6:577.

Farmer, C., S. Robert and J. J. Matte. 1996. Lactation performance of sows fed a bulky diet during gestation and receiving growth hormone-releasing factor during lactation. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1298-1306.

Farrell, D. J. and K. A. Johnson. 1970. Utilisation of cellulose by pigs and its effects on caecal function. Anim. Prod. 14:209-217.

Frape, D. L. and A. M. Jones. 1995. Chronic and postprandial responses of plasma insulin, glucose and lipids in volunteers given dietary fibre supplements. Br. J. Nutr. 73:733-751.

Fraser, D. 1975. The effect of straw on the behaviour of sows in tether stalls. Anim. Prod. 21:59-68.

Fraser, D. 1983. The role of behaviour in swine production: A review of research. Appl. Anim. Ethol. 11:317-339.

Fraser, D. and P. A. Phillips. 1989. Lethargy and low water intake by sows during early lactation: A cause of low piglet weight gains and survival? Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 24:13.

Friend, D. W., J. W. G. Nicholson and H. M. Cunningham. 1964. Volatile fatty acid and lactic acid content in pig blood. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 44:303-308.

Gargallo, J. and D. R. Zimmerman. 1980. Effects of dietary cellulose and neomycin on function of the cecum of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 51:121-126.

Glasgow, V. L., A. H. Stewart and S. A. Edwards. 1996. The effects of dietary fibre and puberty induction method on ovarian activity of gilts. Anim. Prod. 62:660.

Gonyou, H. W. 1986. Assessment of comfort and well-being in farm animals. J. Anim. Sci. 62:1769-1775.

Goodlad, J. S. and J. C. Mathers. 1991. Digestion by pigs of nonstarch polysaccharides in wheat and raw peas (Pisum sativum) fed in mixed diets. Br. J. Nutr. 65:259-270.

Graham, H. and P. Aman. 1991. Nutritional aspects of dietary fibres. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 32:143-158.

Gregory, P. C., M. McFayden and D. V. Rayner. 1987. The influence of gastrcointestinal infusion of glucose on regulation of food intake in pigs. Quarterly J. Exp. Physiol. 72:525-535.

Gyetvai, B. and G. Bardos. 1999. Modulation of taste reactivity by intestinal distension in rats. Physiol. Behav. 66:529-535.

Henman, D. J., C. J. Argent and W. L. Bryden. 1999. Response of male and female finisher pigs to dietary energy density. In: Manipulating Pig Production VII. (Ed. P. D. Cranwell) p. 33. Australasian Pig Science Association. Adelaide, Australia.

Holzgraefe, D. P., G. C. Fahey and A. H. Jensen. 1985. Influence of dietary alfalfa:orchardgrass hay and lasalocid on in vitro estimates of dry matter digestibility and volatile fatty acid concentrations of cecal contents and rate of digesta passage in sows. J. Anim. Sci. 60:1235-1246.

Houpt, K. A. 1982. Gastrointestinal factors in hunger and satiety. Neurooscience and Biobehav. Rev. 6:145-164. crossref(new window)

Houpt, K. A., T. R. Houpt and W. G. Pond. 1977. Food intake controls in the suckling pig: Glucodeprivation and gastrointestinal factors. American J. Physiol. 232:E510-E514.

Hughes, R. N. and I. J. H. Duncan. 1988. The notion of ethological 'need', models of motivation and welfare. Anim. Behav. 36:1696-1707.

Hunter, E. J., D. M. Broom, S. A. Edwards and R. M. Sibly. 1988. Social hierarchy and feeder access in a group of 20 sows using a computer-controlled feeder. Anim. Prod. 47:139-148.

Hutson, G. D. 1991. A note on hunger in the pig: Sows on restricted rations will sustain an energy deficit to gain additional food. Anim. Prod. 52:233-235.

Janowitz, H. D. and M. I.Grossman. 1949. Some factors affecting the food intake of normal dogs and dogs with esophagostomy and gastric fistula. American J. Physiol. 159:143-148.

Johnson, I. T., J. M. Gee and R. R. Mahoney. 1984. Effect of dietary supplements of guar gum and cellulose on intestinal cell proliferation, enzyme levels and sugar transport in the rat. Br. J. Nutr. 52:477-487.

Jorgensen, H., A. Just and J. A. Fernandez. 1985. The influence of dietary supply of minerals on apparent absorption and retention of minerals in growing pigs. In: Digestive Physiology in Growing Pigs. National Institute of Animal Science Report No. 580. pp. 360-363. Copenhagen, Denmark.

Jorgensen, H., X. Zhao and B. O. Eggum. 1996. The influence of dietary fibre and environmental temperature on the development of the gastrointestinal tract. Digestibility, degree of fermentation in the hindgut and energy metabolism in pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 75:365-378.

Just, A. 1982. The influence of ground barley straw on the net energy value of diets for growth in pigs. Livestock Prod. Sci. 9:717-719.

Kass, M. L., P. J. van Soest, W. G. Pond, B. Lewis and R. E. McDowell. 1980a. Utilisation of dietary fibre from alfalfa by growing swine. 1. Apparent digestibility of diet components in specific segments of the gastrointestinal tract. J. Anim. Sci. 50:175-191.

Kass, M. L., P. J. van Soest, W. G. Pond, B. Lewis and R. E. McDowell. 1980b. Utilisation of dietary fibre from alfalfa by growing swine. 2. Volatile fatty acid concentrations in and disappearance from the gastrointestinal tract. J. Anim. Sci. 50:192-197.

Kay, R. M., J. I. Harland and P. H. Simmins. 1991. The effect of feeding diets containing molassed sugar-beet feed during pregnancy and lactation on sow performance. Anim. Prod. 52:597.

Kennelly, J. J. and F. X. Aherne. 1980a. The effect of fibre in diet formulated to contain different levels of energy and protein digestibility coefficients in swine. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:717-726.

Kennelly, J. J. and F. X. Aherne. 1980b. The effect of fibre addition to diets formulated to contain different levels of energy and protein on growth and carcass quality of swine. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:385-393.

Keys, J. E., P. J. van Soest and E. P. Young. 1970. Effect of increasing dietary cell wall content on the digestibility of hemicellulose and cellulose in swine and rats. J. Anim. Sci. 31:1173-1177.

King, R. H. 1990. Feeding breeding stock. In Pig Production in Australia. (Ed. J. A. A. Gardner, A. C. Dunkin and L. C. Lloyd). pp. 72-84. Canberra, Australia.

King, R. H. and M. R. Taverner. 1975. Prediction of the digestible energy in pig diets from analyses of fibre contents. Anim. Prod. 21:275-284.

Kornegay, E. T. 1978. Feeding value and digestibility of soybean hulls for swine. J. Anim. Sci. 47:1272-1280.

Kyriazakis, I., G. C. Emmans and C. I. Whittemore. 1987. Single and choice feeding of pigs as methods of investigating their ability to control protein intake. Anim. Prod. 44:462.

Lawrence, T. L. J. 1972. The effect of certain dietary factors on in vivo pH changes and pepsin activity in the stomach of the growing pig. Br. Vet. J. 128:402-411.

Lawrence, A. B., M. C. Appleby, A. W. Illius and H. A. MacLeod. 1989. Measuring hunger in the pig using operant conditioning: the effect of dietary bulk. Anim. Prod. 48:213-220.

Lawrence, A. B., M. C. Appleby and H. A. MaCleod. 1988a. Measuring hunger in the pig using operant conditioning: The effect of food restriction. Anim. Prod. 47:131-137.

Lawrence, A. B., M. C. Appleby and H. A. Macleod. 1988b. Feeding pigs: divergence of behavioural and physiological requirements. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 21:371.

Lawrence, A. B. and E. M. C. Terlouw. 1993. A review of behavioural factors involved in the development and continued performance of stereotypic behaviours in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:2815-2825.

Le Goff, G., J. van Milgan and J. Noblet. 2002. Influence of dietary fibre on digestive utilisation and rate of passage in growing pigs, finishing pigs and adult sows. Animal Science 74:503-515.

Lee, P. A. and W. H. Close. 1987. Bulky feeds for pigs: a consideration of some non-nutritional aspects. Livestock Prod. Sci. 16:395-405.

Lightfoot, A. L. 1985. Water consumption of finishing pigs with or without straw and using different drinkers. Anim. Prod. 40:545.

Longland, A. C., A. G. Low, D. B. Quelch and S. P. Bray. 1993. Adaptation to the digestion of non-starch polysaccharide in growing pigs fed on cereal or semi-purified basal diets. Br. J. Nutr. 70:557-566.

Lopez, F. D., C. E. White and E. C. Frech. 1988. Repreoductive performance of sows fed high fibre diets during four successive gestations. J. Anim. Sci. 66:323.

Love, R. J., M. van Dijk, C. Kristo and R. Smits. 1999. Measurement of feed intake in group housed sows. In Manipulating Pig Production VII. p. 262 (Ed. P. D. Cranwell) Australasian Pig Science Association, Adelaide, Australia.

Low, A. G. 1990. Nutritional regulation of gastric secretion, digestion and emptying. Nutr. Res. Rev. 3:229-252. crossref(new window)

Low, A. G., R. J. Pittman and R. J. Elliott. 1985. Gastric emptying of barley-soybean diets in the pigs: effects of feeding level, supplementary maize oil, sucrose or cellulose, and water intake. Br. J. Nutr. 54:437-447.

Lynch, P. B. 1989. Voluntary food intake of sows and gilts. Occasional Publication. Br. Soc. Anim. Prod. 1989, No. 13, 71-77.

Mason, G. J. 1991. Stereotypies: a critical review. Anim. Behav. 41:1015-1037. crossref(new window)

Matte, J. J., S. Robert, C. L. Girard, C. Farmer and G. P. Martineau. 1994. Effect of bulky diets based on wheat bran or oat hulls on reproductive performance of sows during their first two parities. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1754-1760.

McDonald, P., R. A. Edwards and J. F. D. Greenhlgh. 1988. Animal Nutrition Longman Scientific & Technical. (New York:USA). pp. 375-387.

Michael, E. and R. D. Hodges. 1973. Histochemical changes in the fowl small intestine associated with enhanced absorption after feed restriction. Hisochemie 36:39-49.

Miller, H. M., G. R. Foxcroff and F. X. Aherne. 2000. Increasing food intake in late gestation improved sow condition throughout lactation but did not affect piglet viability or growth rate. Anim. Sci. 71:141-148.

Mroz, Z., I. G. Partridge, K. G. Mitchell and H. D. Keal. 1986. The effect of oat hulls, added to the basal ration for pregnant sows, on reproductive performance, apparent digesbility, rate of passage and plasma parameters. J. Sci. Food and Agric. 37:239-247.

Mroz, Z. and A. Tarkowski. 1991. The effects of the dietary inclusion of sida meal (Malvaceae) for gilts on the reproductive performance, apparent digestibility, rate of passage and plasma parameters. Livestock Prod. Sci. 27:199-210.

Nielsen, B. L. and A. B. Lawrence. 1993. The effect of group size on the behaviour and performance of growing pigs using computerised single-space feeders. Pig News and Information 14:127-129.