Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Sodium Hydroxide plus Hydrogen Peroxide Treated Mustard (Brassica campestris) Straw Based Diets on Rumen Degradation Kinetics (In sacco), Fermentation Pattern and Nutrient Utilization in Sheep
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of Sodium Hydroxide plus Hydrogen Peroxide Treated Mustard (Brassica campestris) Straw Based Diets on Rumen Degradation Kinetics (In sacco), Fermentation Pattern and Nutrient Utilization in Sheep
Mishra, A.S.; Misra, A.K.; Tripathi, M.K.; Santra, A.; Prasad, R.; Jakhmola, R.C.;
  PDF(new window)
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) treatment (1% NaOH+1.5% ; 1 AHPMS, 2% NaOH+1.5% ; 2AHPMS) on rate and extent of degradation of mustard straw (MS) in sacco in sheep, and its in vivo digestion and ruminal fermentation characteristics when fed to sheep with concentrate (200 g per sheep daily). The treatment of straw with 1 and 2% AHP increased its sodium content by 148 and 296% to that of untreated straw (UMS). There was significant decrease in NDF and hemicellulose contents of AHP treated straw and increase in cellulose and lignin contents. Phenolic acids like ferrulic, -coumaric and o-coumaric significantly (p<0.001) reduced by AHP treatment of mustard straw. In first experiment the in sacco degradation of DM, OM and NDF was significantly (p<0.01) greater for 2 AHPMS than for UMS at all incubation periods. The disappearance of nutrient from 1 AHPMS and 2 AHPMS treated straws continue to increase up to 96 h whereas in UMS the peak disappearance was found at 48 h. By using the equation {(y=a+b) ()} the degradation rates (c) for DM, OM, and NDF were significantly higher for UMS than AHP treated straws. Level of alkali (1 and 2%) had significant effect on degradation characteristics (a, b, c and ) of DM and NDF fraction of MS. However, the effect was not pronounced on OM fraction of MS. In feeding experiment, the intake of nutrients for DM, OM, cell wall constituents and energy was higher on 2 AHPMS, whereas no effect on the digestibility of these nutrients was observed. The apparent nitrogen retention was higher (p<0.05) both in 1 and 2 AHPMS groups. Water intake by animals was significantly increased due to AHP treated mustard straw feeding. Rumen liquor pH was higher in 2 AHPMS fed animals. The of rumen liquor was not affected by feeding of AHP treated MS based diets. Total VFA concentration was significantly (p<0.01) higher in UMS fed group. The fractional out flow rate of DM was higher (p<0.05) in animals fed on 2 AHPMS diets compared to UMS and lAHPMS fed groups. The population of large holotrichs was higher (p<0.05) on AHP treated MS fed diets compared to UMS. The study indicated that treatment of mustard straw with AHP changed its chemical composition towards a better feed. The nutritive value of 2% AHP treated mustard straw was better in terms of dry matter intake and apparent nitrogen retention. The higher in sacco DM, OM and NDF disappearance however, was not confirmed by in vivo data in this study.
Straw;Mustard Straw;Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide;Sheep Feeding;In sacco;Digestibility;Rumen Fermentation;
 Cited by
Optimization of Solid State Fermentation of Mustard (Brassica campestris) Straw for Production of Animal Feed by White Rot Fungi (Ganoderma lucidum),Misra, A.K.;Mishra, A.S.;Tripathi, M.K.;Prasad, R.;Vaithiyanathan, S.;Jakhmola, R.C.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2007. vol.20. 2, pp.208-213 crossref(new window)
Ali, C. S., V. C. Mason and J. Waagepetersen. 1977. The voluntary intake of pelleted diets containing sodium hydroxide treated wheat straw by sheep. 1. The effect of the alkali concentrations in the straw. Zeit. Tierphysiol., Tierernahr. Futtermittelk. 39:173-182.

Andries, J. I., F. X. Buysse, D. L. De Brabannder and B. G. Cottyn. 1987. Iso acids in ruminant nutrition: Their role in ruminal and intermediary metabolism and possible influence on performance -A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 18:169-180.

AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.

Arnason, T. 1980. Treated straw feed for young cattle. Thesis, Department of Animal Science, Agricultural University of Norway, p. 83.

Berger, L., T. Klopfenstein and R. Britton. 1979. Effect of sodium hydroxide on efficiency of rumen digestion. J. Anim. Sci. 49:1317-1323.

Bernett, A. T. G. and R. L. Reid. 1957. Studies on the production of volatile fatty acids from grass and rumen liquor in an artificial rumen. J. Agric. Sci. 48:315-321.

Bolduan, G., S. Voigt and B. Piatkowski. 1974. Unter-Suchungen zum Aufschluss yon Getreidestroh. 3. Einfluss der Behandlung mit Natronlugs auf die Pansenfermentation in Versuchen an Kuhen. Arch. Tierevnahr. 24:149-157.

Brand, A. A., F. Frank and S. W. P. Cloete. 1989. Preliminary note on utilization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide treated wheat straw by sheep. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 19 (3):136-139.

Chaturvedi, O. H., A. Santra, A. S. Mishra, R. Prasad, A. K. Misra, S. Vaithiyanathan and R. C. Jakhmola. 2001. Titrable groups and phenolic compounds in untreated and treated mustard (Brassica campestris) straw and their relation with cell wall constituents and dry matter disappearance in situ. Indian J. Anim. Sciences, 72:75-79.

Chaudhry, A. S. and E. L. Miller. 1994. In vitro digestibility of barley and wheat straws treated with hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide and sodium peroxide under various conditions. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 50:1-15.

Chaudhry, A. S. and E. L. Miller. 1996. The effect of sodium hydroxide and alkaline hydrogen peroxide on chemical composition of wheat straw and voluntary intake, growth and digesta kinetics in store lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 60:69-86.

Chaudhry, A. S. 1998. Nutrient composition, digestion and rumen fermentation in sheep of wheat straw treated with calcium oxide, sodium hydroxide and alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 74:315-328. crossref(new window)

Chaudhry, A. S. 2000. Rumen degradation in sacco in sheep of wheat straw treated with calcium oxide, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide plus hydrogen peroxide. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 83:313-323. crossref(new window)

Chauhan, J. S., S. K. Jha, S. K. Yadav, P. R. Kumar, A. K. Shukla and Y. P. Singh. 1999. Quality rapeseed-mustard varieties in India. A perspective. Technical Bulletin No. 9. National Research Center on Rapeseed-mustard, Sewar, Bharatpur, Rajasthan.

Chesson, A. 1981. Effects of sodium hydroxide on cereal straws in relation to the enhanced degradation of structural polysaccharides by rumen micro-organisms. J. Sci. Food Agric. 32:745-758.

Choung, C. C. and W. R. Mc Marnus. 1976. Studies on forage cell walls. 3. Effects of feeding alkali-treated rice hulls to sheep. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 86:517-530.

Conway, E. J. 1962. Micro diffusion analysis and volumetric errors. 5th edn. Crossby Lackwood, London.

Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple ‘F’ test. Biometrics. 11:1-42. crossref(new window)

Gould, J. M. 1984. Alkaline peroxide delignification of agricultural residues to enhance enzymatic saccharification. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 26:46-52. crossref(new window)

Gould, J. M. 1985. Studies on the mechanism of alkaline hydrogen peroxide delignification of agricultural residues. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 27: 225-231. crossref(new window)

Guggolz, J., R. M. Saunders, G. O. Kohler and T. J. Klopfenstein. 1971. Enzymatic evaluation of processes improving agricultural wastes for ruminant feed. J. Anim. Sci. 33:167-170.

Hartley, R. D. and E. C. Jones. 1977. Phenolic components and degradability of cell walls of grass and legume species. Phytochemistry. 16:1531-1534.

Hartley, R. D. and E. C. Jones. 1978. Effect of aqueous ammonia and other alkalis on the in vitro digestibility of barley straw. J. Sci. Food Agric. 29:92-98.

Hartley, R. D. 1981. Chemical constituents and processing of lignocellulosic wastes in relation to nutritional quality for animals. Agric. Environ. 6:91-113. crossref(new window)

Hogan, J. P. 1982. Digestion and utilization of protein. In:Nutritional limits to Animal Production From Pastures (Ed. J. B. Hacker). C.A.B., Slough, Gt. Britain, pp. 245-257.

Hungate, R. E. 1966. The rumen protozoa: The Rumen and its microbes. pp. 92-147. Academic Press, New York.

Huntingdon, J. A. and D. I. Givens. 1995. The in situ technique for studying the rumen degradation of feeds: A review of the procedure. Nutr. Abstr. Rev. Series B. 65:63-91.

Jackson, M. G. 1977. The alkali treatment of straws -A Review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 2:105-130. crossref(new window)

Jayasuriya, M. C. N. and E. Owen. 1975. Sodium hydroxide treatment of barley straw; effect of volume and concentration of solution on digestibility and intake by sheep. Anim. Prod. 21:313-322.

Kamra, D. N., R. K. Sawal, N. N. Pathak, N. Kewalramani and N. Agrawal. 1991. Diurnal variation in ciliate protozoa in the rumen of black buck (Antilope cervicapra) fed green forage. Lett. In Appl. Microbiol. 13:165-167. crossref(new window)

Kerley, M. S., G. C. Fahey Jr., L. L. Berger, N. R. Merchen and J. M. Gould. 1986. Effect of alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment of wheat straw on the site and extent of digestion in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 63:868-978.

Kerley, M. S., G. C., Fahey Jr, L. L. Berger, N. R. Merchen and J. M. Gould. 1987. Effect of treating wheat straw with pHregulated solutions of alkaline hydrogen peroxide on nutrient digestion by sheep. J. Dairy Sci. 70:2078- 2084.

Kelley, J. M., H. Park, M. Summers and L. P. Milligan. 1993. Interaction between protein and energy metabolism. In: Quantitative Aspects of Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism. (Ed. J. M. Forbe and J. France). CAB International, Oxon, UK.

Klopfenstein, T. J. 1978. Chemical treatment of crop residues. J. Anim. Sci. 46:841-848.

Klopfenstein, T. J., L. Berger and J. Paterson. 1979. Performance of animals fed crop residues. Fed. Proc. 38:1939-1943.

Maeng, W. I., D. N. Mowat and W. K. Bilanski. 1971. Digestibility of sodium hydroxide treated straw fed alone or in combination with alfalfa silage. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 51:743-747.

Mertens, D. R. 1979. Effect of buffers upon fibre digestion. In: Regulation of Acid Base Balance (Ed. W. H. Hale and P. Meinhardt). Church and Dwight Co. Inc., Nutley, NJ. pp. 65-72.

Miller, E. L. and E. O. K. Oddoye. 1989. Prediction of voluntary intake of conserved forages by cattle from degradability characteristics determined by using synthetic fibre bags in sheep. In: Proc. Br. Soc. Anim. Prod. (Science), Winter Meeting, Scarborough, UK, p. 70.

Mishra, A. S., O. H. Chaturvedi, Khali Ananta, R. Prasad, A. Santra, A. K. Misra, S. Parthasarathy and R. C. Jakhmola. 2000. Effect of sodium hydroxide and alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment on physical and chemical characteristics and IVOMD of mustard straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 84:257-264.

Mishra, A. S., A. Santra, O. H. Chaturvedi, A. K. Misra, R. Prasad and R. C. Jakhmola. 2001. Rumen fermentation characteristics, ciliate protozoa and utilization of nutrients in sheep fed sodium hydroxide treated mustard straw. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 70:850-853.

Misra, A. K., S. A. Karim, D. L. Verma, A. S. Mishra and M. K. Tripathi. 2000. Nutrient intake, its utilization, rumen fermentation pattern and blood bio-chemical constituents of sheep fed urea-NH3 treated mustard (Brassica campestris) straw. Asian-Aust. J. Animal Sci. 13 (12):1674-1680.

Misra, A. K., O. H. Chaturvedi, A. S. Mishra, M. K. Tripathi, D. L. Verma and S. A. Karim. 2001. Nutrient intake and utilization in sheep fed urea supplemented diets containing mustard straw and other roughage. Indian Journal of Small Rumunants 7(1):8-13.

Pitchaiah, K. V. 1971. The effect of feeding alkali treated wheat straw on the production and composition of milk in cows. M. V. Sc. Thesis, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, pp. 84.

Orskov, E. R. and I. Mc Donald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from the incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 92:499-503.

Orskov, E. R. 1982. Protein Nutrition in Ruminants. Academic Press, NY.

Owen, J. B., D. A. R. Davies, E. L. Miller and W. J. Ridgman. 1967. The intensive rearing of lambs. 2: Voluntary food intake and performance on diets of varying oat husk and beef tallow content. Anim. Prod. 9:509-520.

Perkin-Elmer. 1982. Analytical methods for atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Norwalk, Connecticut, USA.

Ranjhan, S. K. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Livestock and Poultry. Directorate of Information and Publications of Agriculture, Krishi Anusandhan Bhawan, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.

Rexen, F. and K. V. Thomsen. 1976. The effect of digestibility of a new technique for alkali treatment of straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 1:73-83.

Satter, L. D. and L. L. Slyter. 1974. Effect of ammonia concentration on ruminal microbial protein production in in vitro. Br. J. Nutr. 32:199-208.

Shakil, N. A., A. S. Negi and K. L. Karnani. 1999. Bridged Phenolic acids in forage cell walls and their effect on cell wall digestibility. Ind. J. Anim. Nutr. 16 (3):187-193.

Uden, P., P. E. Colucci and P. J. Van Soest. 1980. Investigations of chromium, barium and cobalt as markers in digesta. Rate of passage studies. J. Food Sci. Agric. 31:625-632.

Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Symposium: Carbohydrate methodology, metabolism and nutritional implications in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.

Voigt, J. and B. Piatkowski. 1974. Untersuchungen zum Aufschluss Von Getreidestroh. 5. Die Wirkung des Natrium im NaOH-behan delten Stroh auf die Zusammensetzung Von Blut und Harn sowie die Exkretion verschiendener Verbindungen. Arch. Tierernahr. 24:589-600.