Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Milk Production, Season, Parity and Lactation Period on Variations of Milk Urea Nitrogen Concentration and Milk Components of Holstein Dairy Cows
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Milk Production, Season, Parity and Lactation Period on Variations of Milk Urea Nitrogen Concentration and Milk Components of Holstein Dairy Cows
Yoon, J.T.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, C.K.; Chung, Y.C.; Kim, C.-H.;
  PDF(new window)
The study was conducted to assess the effect of milk production, parity, stage of lactation, season and individual milk components themselves on milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration and other milk components of 3,219 Holstein dairy cows in Korean dairy farms. The MUN concentrations in Korean dairy cows were estimated to 16.685.87 mg/dl. Milk yield was negatively correlated with fat and protein contents and somatic cell counts (SCC) in milk (p<0.01). The increasing MUN concentration has positive correlation with yield and fat content. By increasing somatic cell, milk yield was reduced and MUN level was increased. Cows in spring and winter produced more milk over 1.43 and 0.93 kg/day, respectively, than cows in summer (p<0.01). Milk urea nitrogen concentrations of milk produced in summer and fall were significantly lower (p<0.01) than those in spring and winter. Both MUN concentration and somatic cell counts were highest in winter. Milk yield was lower (p<0.01) in the first calving than other calving time and was tended to increase until the fifth parity and then decrease. Milk urea nitrogen and SCC were not related to parity of cows in this study. Milk yield and SCC were positively related to lactation period while MUN concentrations and milk fat and protein contents were negatively influenced by stage of lactation. In the present study, the relationship between MUN and reproduction of dairy cows was also investigated. Cow produced milk in high MUN concentrations (greater than 18 mg/dl) had more open days than cows in MUN concentrations less than 18 mg/dl. However, no significant difference between MUN concentration levels and frequency of artificial insemination was found in this study. It is suggested that although MUN values for nutritional management and measures of production or reproduction are used, non-nutritional factors should be considered.
Milk Urea Nitrogen;Milk Production;Non-nutritional Factors;Dairy Cows;
 Cited by
허브부식토의 사료내 첨가에 따른 In Vitro 발효특성과 젖소의 유생산성에 미치는 영향,김현섭;박중국;김홍윤;김상범;양승학;김창현;안종호;

한국초지조사료학회지, 2011. vol.31. 2, pp.177-190 crossref(new window)
Characterizing Milk Production Related Genes in Holstein Using RNA-seq,;;;;;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2016. vol.29. 3, pp.343-351 crossref(new window)
Effect of dietary gamma-linolenic acid on milk production in cow,;;;;;

농업과학연구, 2016. vol.43. 2, pp.232-239 crossref(new window)
Effects of Dietary Herbaceous Peat on In Vitro Fermentation and Milk Production in Dairy Cows, Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science, 2011, 31, 2, 177  crossref(new windwow)
Characterizing Milk Production Related Genes in Holstein Using RNA-seq, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2016, 29, 3, 343  crossref(new windwow)
Holstein-Friesian milk performance in organic farming in North Spain: Comparison with other systems and breeds, Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 2017, 15, 1, e0601  crossref(new windwow)
Anderson, G. W. and B. A. Barton. 1988. Reproductive efficiency: potential nutrition-management interactions. In: Proceedings of Winter Dairy Management Schools, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. USA. p. 107.

Baker, L. D., J. D. Ferguson and W. Chalupa. 1995. Response in urea and true protein of milk to different protein feeding schemes for dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 78:2424-2434.

Barton, B. A. 1996. Determining if reproduction is affected by a nutrient imbalance. In: Proceedings of Tri-State Dairy Nturtion Conference. pp. 17-32.

Barton, B. A., H. A. Rosario, G. W. Anderson, B. P. Grindle and D. J. Carroll. 1996. Effects of dietary crude protein, breed, parity, and health status on the fertility of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 79:2225-2236.

Broderick, G. A. and M. K. Clayton. 1997. A statistical evaluation of animal and nutritional factors influencing concentrations of milk urea nitrogen. J. Dairy Sci. 80:2964-2971.

Bruckental, I., D. Drori, M. Kaim, H. Lehrer and Y. Folman. 1989. Effects of source and level of protein on milk yield and reproductive performance of high-producing primiparous and multiparous dairy cows. Anim. Prod. 48:319-329.

Buchberger, J. 1989. Investigations on the urea and protein concentrations in milk. Milchpraxis. 27:98-99.

Butler, W. R. 1998. Review: Effect of protein nutrition on ovarian and uterine physiology in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2523-2539.

Butler, W. R., J. J. Calaman and S. W. Beam. 1996. Plasma and milk urea nitrogen in relation to pregnancy rate in lactating dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 74:858-865.

Canfield, R. W., C. J. Sniffen and W. R. Butler. 1990. Effects of excess degradable protein on postpartum reproduction and energy balance in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 73:2342-2349.

Carlsson, J. and B. Pehrson. 1994. The influence of the dietary balance between energy and protein on milk urea concentration. Experimental trials assessed by two different protein evaluation systems. Acta Vet. Scand. 35:193-205.

Carlsson, J. and B. Pehrson. 1993. The relationships between seasonal variations in the concentration of urea in bulk milk and the production and fertility of dairy herds. J. Vet. Med. A. 40:205-212.

Carroll, D. J., B. A. Barton, G. W. Anderson and R. D. Smith. 1988. Influence of protein intake and feeding strategy on reproductive performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 71:3470-3481.

Chalupa, W. 1984. Discussion of protein symposium. J. Dairy Sci. 67:1134-1146.

DePeters, E. J. and J. D. Ferguson. 1992. Nonprotein nitrogen and protein distribution in the milk of cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:3192-3209.

DePeters, E. J. and J. P. Cant. 1992. Nutritional factors influencing the nitrogen composition of bovine milk: a review. J. Dairy Sci. 75:2043-2070.

Dulin, A. M., M. J. Paape, W. D. Schultz and B. T. Weinland. 1983. Effect of parity, stage of lactation and intramammary infection on concnetratin of somatic cells and cytoplasmic particles in goat milk. J. Dairy Sci. 66:2426-2433.

Ferguson, J. D. and W. Chalupa. 1989. Impact of protein nutrition on reproduction in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:746-766.

Ferguson, J. D., D. T. Galligan, T. Blanchard and M. Reeves. 1993. Serum urea nitrogen and concentration rate: the usefulness of test information. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3742-3746.

Ferguson, J. D., T. Blanchard, D. T. Galligan, D. C. Hoshall and W. Chalupa. 1988. Infertility in dairy cattle fed a high percentage of protein degradable in the rumen. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 192:659-662.

Folman, Y., H. Neumark, M. Kaim and W. Kaufmann. 1981. Performance, rumen and blood metabolites in high-yielding cows fed varying protein percents and protected soybean. J. Dairy Sci. 64:759-768.

Godden, S. M., D. F. Kelton, K. D. Lissemore, J. S. Walton, K. E. Leslie and J. H. Jumsden. 2001. Milk urea testing as a tool to monitor reproductive performance in Ontario dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1397-1406.

Godden, S. M., K. D. Lissemore, D. F. Kelton, K. E. Leslie, J. S. Walton and J. H. Lumsden. 2001. Relationships between milk urea concentrations and nutritional management, production and economic variables in Ontario Dairy Herds. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1128-1139.

Godden, S. M., K. D. Lissemore, D. F. Kelton, K. E. Leslie, J. S. Walton and J. H. Lumsden. 2001. Factors associated with milk urea concentrations in Ontario dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84:107-114.

Gustafsson, A. H. and J. Carlsson. 1993. Effects of silage quality, protein evaluation systems and milk urea content on milk yield and reproduction in dairy cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 37:91-105.

Hassan, A. and J. D. Roussel. 1975. Effect of protein concentration in the diet on blood composition and productivity of lactating Holstein cows under thermal stress. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb) 85:409-415.

Holtz, C. R., R. D. Smith, C. J. Sniffen and W. Chalupa. 1986. Reproductive and metabolic responses of dairy cattle to the level and degradability of dietary protein. J. Dairy Sci. 69(Suppl. 1):243 (Abstr.).

Howard, H. J., E. P. Aalseth, G. D. Adams, L. J. Bush, R. W. McNew and L. J. Dawson. 1987. Influence of dietary protein on reproductive performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 70:1563-1571.

Hwang, S.-Y., M.-J. Lee and P. W.-S. Chiou. 2000. Monitoring nutritional status of dairy cows in Taiwan using milk protein and milk urea nitrogen. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:1667-1673.

Ibrahim, I. F., S. M. Seif and H. D. Johnson. 1970. Plasma insulin and free amino acid changes with heat exposure in bovine. J. Dairy Sci. 53:651 (Abstr.).

Jonker, J. S., R. A. Kohn and J. High. 2002. Use of milk urea nitrogen to improve dairy cow diets. J. Dairy Sci. 85:939-946.

Jonker, J. S., R. A. Kohn and R. A. Erdman. 1999. Milk urea nitrogen target concentrations for lactating dairy cows fed according to national research council recommendations. J. Dairy Sci. 82:1261-1273.

Johnson, H. D., A. C. Ragsdale, I. L. Berry and M. D. Shanklin. 1963. Temperature-humidity effects including influence of acclimation in feed and water consumption of Holstein cattle. Univ. of Missouri Res. Bull. No. 846.

Jordan, E. R. and L. V. Swanson. 1979. Effect of crude protein on reproductive efficiency, serum total protein, and albumin in the high-producing dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci. 62:58-63.

Kaim, M., Y. Folman, H. Neumark and W. Kaufmann. 1983. The effect of protein intake and lactation number on postpartum body weight loss and reproductive performance of dairy cows. Anim. Prod. 37:229-235.

Kamal, T. H. and H. D. Johnson. 1970. Whole body 40K loss as a predictor of heat tolerance in cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 53:531-533.

Macleod, G. K., D. G. Grieve, I. McMillan and G. C. Smith. 1984. Effect of varying protein and energy densities in complete rations. J. Dairy Sci. 67:1421-1429.

Miettinen, P. V. and R. O. Juvonen. 1990. Diurnal variation of serum and milk urea levels in diary cows. Acta Agric. Scand. 40:289-296.

Muggli, J. 1995. Influence of SCC on stage of lactation. Anim. Breed. Abstr. p. 1996.

Ng-Kwai-Hang, K. F., J. F. Hays, J. E. Moxley and H. G. Monardes. 1985. Percentages of protein and nonprotein nitrogen with varying fat and somatic cells in bovine milk. J. Dairy. Sci. 68:1257-1262.

NRC. 1981. Effect of environment on nutrient requirements of domestic animals. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. USA.

Oltner, R. and H. Wiktorsson. 1983. Urea concentrations in milk and blood as influenced by feeding varying amounts of protein and energy to dairy cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 10:457-467.

Oltner, R., M. Emanuelson and H. Wiktorsson. 1985. Urea concentrations in milk in relation to milk yield, live weight, lactation number and amount and composition of feed given to dairy cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 12:47-57.

Pehrson, B., K. Plym Forshell and J. Carlsson. 1992. The effect of additional feeding on the fertility of hig-yielding dairy cows. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. A 39:187-192.

Rajala-Schultz, P. J., W. J. A. Saville, G. S. Frazer and T. E. Wittum. 2001. Association between milk urea nitrogen and fertility in Ohio dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84:482-489.

Randy, H. A., W. A. Caler and W. H. Miner. 1991. Effect of lactation number, year and milking management practices on milk yield and SCC of French Alpine dairy goats. J. Dairy Sci. 74:311-315.

Refsdal, A. O., L. Baevre and R. Bruflot. 1985. Urea concentration in bulk milk as an indicator of the protein supply at the herd level. Acta Vet. Scand. 26:153-163.

Roy, B., R. K. Mehla and S. K. Sirohi. 2003. Influence of milk yield, parity, stage of lactation and body weight on urea and protein concentration in milk of Murrah buffaloes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1285-1290.

Roseler, K. K., J. D. Ferguson, C. J. Sniffen and J. Kerrema. 1993. Dietary protein degradability effects of plasma and milk urea nitrogen and milk nonprotein nitrogen in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:525-534.

Stott, G. H. 1981. What is animal stress and how is it measured? J. Anim. Sci. 52:150-153.

SAS. 1996. SAS/STAT$\circledR$ User’s Guide, version 6.12. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

Tamminga, S. 1992. Nutrition management of dairy cows as a contribution to pollution control. J. Dairy Sci. 75:345-357.

Wilson, D. J., K. N. Stewart and P. M. Sears. 1995. Effect of stage of lactation, production, parity and season on somatic cell counts in infected and uninfected dairy goats. Small Rumin. Res. 16:165-169.

Wolfschoon-Pombo, A., H. Klostermeyer, J. Buchberger and R. Graml. 1981. Urea in the NPN-fraction of cows milkdetermination, content and influence on it. Milchwissenschaft. 36:462-466.