Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Nutrient Digestibility of Palm Kernel Cake for Muscovy Ducks
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Nutrient Digestibility of Palm Kernel Cake for Muscovy Ducks
Mustafa, M.F.; Alimon, A.R.; Zahari, M.W.; Idris, I.; Bejo, M. Hair;
  PDF(new window)
Expeller pressed and solvent extracted palm kernel cake (PKC) were force-fed to male and female Muscovy ducks at 7 weeks of age. The nutrient digestibility, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), true metabolizable energy (TME) and true available amino acid (TAAA) digestibilities were determined. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the type of PKC used on crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), metabolizable energy (ME) and amino acid (AA) digestibilities. However, digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) was found to be higher in solvent extracted compared to expeller pressed PKC. The average digestibility of DM, CP, NDF and EE were 43, 58, 39 and 89%, espectively. It was found that the ducks utilized about 47% of the gross energy of PKC. The respective average AMEn and TMEn values of PKC for Muscovy ducks was 1,743 and 1,874 kcal/kg. The overall TAAA of PKC for Muscovy ducks was 65%. The data on the TMEn and digestible AA for PKC obtained from this study provide new information with regard to diet formulation for Muscovy ducks.
PKC;Metabolizable Energy;Digestible Amino Acid;Muscovy Ducks;
 Cited by
Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Palm Kernel Cake and Palm Oil, and Enzyme Supplementation on Performance of Laying Hens,Chong, C.H.;Zulkifli, I.;Blair, R.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2008. vol.21. 7, pp.1053-1058 crossref(new window)
AOAC. 1984. Official Methods of Analysis. 14th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.

Bidlingmeyer, B. A., S. A. Cohen and T. L. Travin. 1984. Rapid analysis of amino acids using pre-column derivatization. J. Chromatogr. 336:93-104.

Bolton, W. and R. Blair. 1974. Poultry Nutrition. 4th Ed. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Bulletin No. 174, HMSO, London.

Cao, J., X. G. Luo, P. R. Henry, C. B. Ammerman, R. C. Littell and R. D. Miles. 1996. Effect of dietary iron concentration, age, and length of iron feeding on feed intake and tissue iron concentration of broiler chicks for use as a bioassay of supplemental iron sources. Poult. Sci. 75:495-504.

Chong, C. H., R. Blair, I. Zulkifli and Z. A. Jelan. 1998. Physical and chemical characteristics of Malaysian palm kernel cake (PKC). In: Proceedings of the 1998. Malaysian Society of Animal Production Annual Conference, Putrajaya, Malaysia. pp. 62-63.

Daud, M. J. 1992. Nutritional Improvement of Palm Kernel Cake for Poultry Diets. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Farhat, A. L. Normand, E. R. Chavez and S. P. Touchburn. 1998. Nutrient digestibility in food waste ingredients for Pekin and Muscovy ducks. Poult. Sci. 77:1371-1376.

Hill, F. W. and D. L. Anderson. 1958. Comparison of metabolizable energy and productive energy determinations with growing chicks. J. Nutr. 64:587-603.

King, D., D. Ragland and O. Adeola. 1997. Apparent and true metabolizable energy values of feedstuffs for ducks. Poult. Sci. 76:1418-1423.

Leclercq, B. and H. de Carville. 1986. Dietary energy, protein and phosphorus requirements of Muscovy ducks. In: Duck Production: Science and World Practice (Ed. D. J. Farrell and P. Stapleton). University of New England. pp. 58-69.

Mohamed, K., B. Leclercq, A. Anar, H. El-Alaily and H. Soliman. 1984. A comparative study of metabolisable energy in ducklings and domestic chicks. Anim. Feed Sci. and Technol. 11:199-205. crossref(new window)

National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Onifade, A. A. and G. M. Babatunde. 1998. Comparison of the utilisation of palm kernel meal, brewers’ dried grains and maize offal by broiler chicks. Br. Poult. Sci. 39:245-250.

Ravindran, V. and R. Blair. 1992. Feed resources for poultry production in Asia and the Pacific. II. Plant protein sources. World’s Poult. Sci. J. 48:3, 205-231.

Sibbald, I. R. 1980. The effect of dietary cellulose and sand on the combined metabolic plus endogenous energy and amino acid outputs of adult cockerels. Poult. Sci. 59:836-844.

SPSS, 1999. Statistical Package for Social Scientists. SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL.

Sugden, L. G. 1974. Energy metabolized by bantam chickens and blue winged teal. Poult. Sci. 53:2227-2228.

Thomas, R. L., R. W. Sheard and J. R. Moyer. 1967. Comparison of convention and automated procedures for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium analysis of plant material using a single digestion. Agron. J. 59:240-243.

Van Soest, P. J. 1963. Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. 2. A rapid method for the determination of fiber and lignin. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 46:829-835.

Van Soest, P. J. and R. H. Wine. 1967. Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. IV. Determination of plant cell wall constituents. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 50:50-55.

Yeong, S. W. 1983. Amino acid availability of palm kernel cake, palm oil sludge and sludge fermented product (PROLIMA) in studies with chickens. MARDI Research Bulletin, 11:1, 84-88.

Yeong, S. W., T. K. Mukherjee and R. I. Hutagalung. 1981. 4. The nutritive value of palm kernel cake as a feedstuff for poultry. In: Proceedings of the national workshop on oil palm byproduct utilization. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 100-107.