AOAC. 1980. Official Method of Analysis (13th edn.). Washington, DC.
Beede, D. K. and R. J. Collier. 1986. Potential nutritional strategies for intensively managed cattle during thermal stress. J. Anim. Sci. 62:543-554.
Colditz, P. J. and R. C. Kellaway. 1972. The effect of diet and heat stress on feed intake, growth and nitrogen metabolism in friesian F1 brahman X friesian, and Brahman heifers. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 23:717-725.
Collier, R. J., S. G. Doelger, H. H. Head, W. W. Thatcher and C. J. Wilcox. 1982. Effects of heat stress during pregnancy on maternal hormone concentrations, calf birth weight and postpartum milk yield of Holstein cows. J. Anim. Sci. 54:309-319.
Fuquay, J. W. 1981. Heat stress as it affects animal production. J. Anim. Sci. 52:164-174.
Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage fiber analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). In: Agriculture Handbook. (USDA ed.) 2-9. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, DC.
Hayasaka, K. and N. Yamagishi. 1990. Behavioral responses of lactating Holstein cows to rising indoor air temperature in Hokkaido. Jpn. J. Zootech. Sci. 61:690-694.
Hirayama, T., K. Katoh and M. Ohta. 2002. Effects of feeding alfalfa hay and timothy hay on the digestibilities, contract of rumen and excretion movement of feeds of goats on heat exposure. Anim. Sci. J. 73:J95-J101.
Hirayama, T., N. Asato and M. Ohta. 2001. Behavior and ruminal contraction of Japanese black cattle in the summer season. Anim. Sci. J. 72:J605-J609.
Hoshino, S. 1996. Current research on growth hormone (GH) and its function. Anim. Sci. J. 67:J84-J101.
Itoh, F., Y. Obara, H. Fuse, I. Osaka and K. Hodate. 1997. Responses of plasma insulin, glucagons, growth hormone, and metabolites in heifers during cold and heat exposure. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Jpn.) 68:727-734.
Knapp, D. M. and R. R. Grummer. 1991. Response of lactationg dairy cows to fat supplementation during heat stress. J. Dairy Sci. 74:2573-2579.
McGuire, M. A., D. K. Beede, M. A. Delorenzo, C. J. Wilcox, G. B. Huntington, C. K. Reynolds and R. J. Collier. 1989. Effects of thermal stress and level of feed intake on portal plasma flow and net fluxes of metabolites in lactating Holstein cows. J. Anim. Sci. 67:1050-1060.
Mcleod, M. N., P. M. Kennedy and D. J. Minson. 1990. Resistance of leaf and stem fraction of tropical forage to chewing and passage in cattle. Br. J. Nutr. 63:105-119.
Nardone, A., N. Lacetera, U. Bernabucci and B. Ronchi. 1997. Composition of colostrums from dairy heifers exposed to high air temperatures during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. J. Dairy Sci. 80:838-844.
Olbrich, S. E., F. A. Martz, H. D. Johnson, S. W. Phillips, A. C. Lippincott and E. S. Hilderbrand. 1972. Effect of constant ambient temperatures of 10 C and 31 C on ruminal responses of cold tolerant and heat tolerant cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 34:64-69.
Sano, H., K. Ambo and T. Tsuda. 1985. Blood growth kinetics in whole body and mammary gland of lactating goats exposed to heat. J. Dairy Sci. 68:2557-2564.
SAS. 1988. User's Guide (Release 6.03). SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.