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Effects of Ensiled Cassava Tops on Rumen Environment Parameters, Thyroid Gland Hormones and Liver Enzymes of Cows Fed Urea-treated Fresh Rice Straw
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 Title & Authors
Effects of Ensiled Cassava Tops on Rumen Environment Parameters, Thyroid Gland Hormones and Liver Enzymes of Cows Fed Urea-treated Fresh Rice Straw
Khang, Duong Nguyen; Wiktorsson, Hans;
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Four rumen-cannulated cows (330 kg average weight at 4 years) were used to evaluate the supplement of ensiled cassava tops (ECT) (variety KM 94, 39% DM) on rumen functions, thyroid hormones and liver enzymes. The treatments, arranged in a 4 4 Latin square design, were ECT at 0, 50, 100 and 150 g CP 100 kg body weight (BW), and a basal diet of urea-treated fresh rice straw (UFRS) ad libitum and 1.1 kg dry matter (DM) cassava root meal (CRM) in each 30 day study period. The results showed a continuous decrease in dry matter intake (DMI) of UFRS with increasing level of ECT supplement (p<0.001). The highest total DMI was observed for treatment ECT (2.68 kg DM 100 kg BW day) followed by treatments ECT, ECT and ECT, with 2.47, 2.24 and 2.06 kg DM 100 kg BW⋅day, respectively. Increasing levels of ECT supplement increased the concentration of total volatile fatty acids (p<0.05) and ammonia nitrogen (p<0.05) and resulted in a decrease in pH (p<0.05). Overall average plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations were 0.80, 0.82, 0.85 and 0.69 ng ml (p>0.05), and 50.9, 49.5, 50.7 and 42.4 ng ml-1 (p>0.05) for treatments ECT, ECT, ECT and ECT, respectively. There were non-significant differences in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase among treatments. It is concluded that ECT is a valuable protein-rich feed supplement to cattle, and the highest level of on average 2.48 kg DM ECT per cow and day (28% of total DMI) did not significantly affect thyroid gland hormones and liver enzymes in cows.
Cow;Ensiled Cassava Tops;Dry Matter Intake;Rumen;Thyroid Gland Hormones;Liver Enzymes;
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