Abdulrazak, S. A., R. W. Muinga, W. Thrope and E. R. Orskov. 1997. Supplementation with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on voluntary food intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and live weight of crossbred steers offered Zea mays stover. Livest. Prod. Sci. 49:53-62.
Abdulrazak, S. A., T. Fuhujara, J. K. Ondiek and E. R. Orskov. 2000a. Nutritive evaluation of some Acacia tree leaves in Kenya. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 85:89-98.
Abdulrazak, S. A., E. A. Orden, T. Ichinohe and T. Fujihara. 2000b. Chemical composition, phenolic concentration and in vitro gas production characteristics of selected Acacia fruits and leaves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:935-940.
Aerts, R. J., T. M. Barry and W. C. MacNabb. 1999. Polyphenols and agriculture: beneficial effects of proanthocyanidins in forages. Agriculture Ecosystem & Environment 75:1-12.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists 1984. Official Methods of Analysis, 13th Edn., AOAC, Washington, DC.
Barnett, A. J. G. 1951. The colorimetric determination of lactic acid in silage. Biochem. J. 49:527-529.
Ben Saem, H., A. Nefzaoui, L. Ben Salem and J. L. Tisserand. 1999. Different means of administering polyethylene glycol to sheep: effect on the nutritive value of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Foliage. Anim. Sci. 68:809-818.
Chen, X. B. and M. J. Gomes. 1992. Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives -an overview of the technical details. International Feed Resources Unit, Rowett Research Institute, Occasional Publication 1992, Aberdeen, UK.
Chen, X. B., A. T. Mejia, D. J. Kyle and E. R. Ørskov. 1995. Evaluation of the use of the purine derivative: creatinine ratio in spot urine and plasma samples as an index of microbial protein supply in ruminants: studies in sheep. J. Agirc. Sci. 125:137-143.
Cherney, D. J. R. 2000. Characterization of forage by chemical analysis. In: Forage Evaluation in ruminant nutrition (Ed. D. I. Givens, E. Owen, R. F. E. Axford and H. M. Omed). CABI International, Oxon, UK. pp. 281-300.
Chiou, P. W. S., C. R. Chen, K. J. Chen and B. Yu. 1998. Wet brewers’ grains or bean curd pomance as partial replacement of soybean meal for lactating cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 74:123-134.
Georing, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage fiber analysis. United States of Amierca, ARC. Handloook No. 379.
Graham, H. N. 1992. Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry. Preventive medicine 21:334-359.
Huang, H. J., P. W. G. Chiou, C. R. Chen, J. K. Chiang and B. Yu. 1999. Effects of dried rice distillers’ and grain supplementation on the performance of lactating cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 77:303-315.
Hwang, S. Y., M. J. Lee and P. W. S. Chiou. 2000. Monitoring nutritional status of dairy cows in Taiwan using milk protein and milk urea nitrogen. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:1667-1673.
Jones, G. M., R. E. Larsen and N. M. Lanning. 1980. Prediction of silage digestibility and intake by chemical analyses or in vitro fermentation techniques. J. Dairy Sci. 63:579-586.
Kondo, M., K. Kita and H. Yokota. 2004a. Feeding value to goats of whole-crop oat ensilied with green tea waste. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 113:71-81.
Kondo, M., K. Kita and H. Yokota. 2004b. Effects of tea leaf waste of green tea, oolong tea, and black tea addition on sudangrass silage quality and in vitro gas production. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84:721-727.
Landau, L. S., N. Silanikove, Z. Nitsan, D. Barkai, H. Baram, F. D. Provenza and A. Perevolotsky. 2000. Short-term changes in eating patterns explain the effects of condensed tannins on feed intake in heifers. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 69:199-213.
Licitra, G., T. M. Hernandez and P. J. Van Soest. 1996. Standarization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminat feed. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 57:347-358.
Makkar, H. P. S. and A. V. Goodchild. 1996. Quantification of tannins: a laboratory manual, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria.
Nunez-Hernandez, G., J. D. Wallace, J. L. Holechek,, M. L. Galyean and M. Cardenas. 1991. Condensed tannins and nutrient utilization by lambs and goats fed low-quality diets. J. Anim. Sci. 69:1167-1177.
Ohshima, M., K. Miyase, N. Nishino and H. Yokota. 1991. Ruminal acid concentrations of goats fed hays and silages prepared from Italian ryegrass and its pressed cake. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 4:59-65.
Orskov, E. R. 1982. Protein nutrition in ruminants. Academic Press Inc. London.
Raederstorff, D. G., F. M. Schlachter, E. Volker and P. Weber. 2003. Effect of EGCG on lipid absorption and plasma lipid levels in rats. The J. Nutri. Biochem. 14:326-332.
Rubanza, C. D. K., M. N. Shem, R. Otsyina, T. Ichinohe and T. Fujihara. 2003. Nutritive evaluation of some browse tree legume foliages native to semi-arid areas in western Tanzania. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1429-1437.
Salawu, M. B., T. Acamovic, C. S. Stewart, T. Hvelplund and M. R. Weisbjerg. 1999. The use of tannins as silage additives: effects on silage composition and mobile bag disappearance of dry matter and protein. Anim. Feed Sci. Tehcnol. 82:243-259.
Santos, G. T., R. L. Oliveira, H. V. Petit, U. Cecato, L. N. Zeoula, L. P. Rigolon, J. C. Damasceno, A. F. Branco and V. Bett. 2000. Effect of tannic acid on composition and ruminal degradability of bermudagrass and alfalfa silages. J. Dairy Sci. 83:2016-2020.
SAS Institute 1992. Statview for windows, version 5.0, Cary NC, USA.
Silanikove, N., Z. Nitsan and A. Pfevolotsky. 1994. Effect of a daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol on intake and digestion of tannin-containing leaves (Cernatonia siliqua) by sheep. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:2844-2847.
Teddy, T., C. Yang and M. W. L. Koo. 1999. Chinese green tea lowers cholesterol level through an increase in fecal lipid excretion. Life Sci. 66:411-423.
Tolera, A., K. Khazaal and E. R. Orskov. 1997. Nutritive evaluation of some browse species. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 67:181-195.
Vinson, J. A. and Y. A. Dabbagh. 1998. Effect of green and black tea supplementation on lipids, lipid oxidation and fibrinogen in the hamster: mechanisms for the epidemiological benefits of tea drinking. FEMS letters. 433:44-46.
Woodward, A. and J. D. Reed. 1997. Nitrogen metabolism of sheep and goats consuming Acacia brevispica and Sesbania sesban. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1130-1139.
Yamamoto, T., L. R. Juneja, D. C. Chu and M. Kim. 1997. Chemistry and applications of green tea, CRC press. Florida, USA.
Yang, C. J., I. Y. Yang, D. H. Oh, I. H. Bae, S. G. Cho, I. G. Kong, D. Uuganbayar, I. S. Nou and K. S. Choi. 2003. Effect of green tea by-products on performance and body composition in broiler chicks. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:867-872.