Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Ensiled Green Tea Waste as Partial Replacement for Soybean Meal and Alfalfa Hay in Lactating Cows
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Ensiled Green Tea Waste as Partial Replacement for Soybean Meal and Alfalfa Hay in Lactating Cows
Kondo, Makoto; Nakano, Masashi; Kaneko, Akemi; Agata, Hirobumi; Kita, Kazumi; Yokota, Hiroomi;
  PDF(new window)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein supplementation of green tea waste (GTW) on the performance of lactating cows. Another aim was to increase resource utilization and to eliminate any environmental negative impact from the tea waste. GTW from a beverage company was ensiled at a low pH (<4.0) and high acetic acid and lactic acid concentration, and it contained high crude protein (CP, 34.8%), total extractable tannins (TET, 9.2%) and condensed tannin (CT, 1.7%). Two experiments were conducted to investigate the palatability and performance in lactating cows fed GTW. In the palatability trial, three lactating cows were allocated to three dietary treatments in a 33 Latin square design. The animals were offered a total mixed ration (TMR) including GTW at rates of 0, 2.5 and 5.0% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Total DM intake was not different among the treatments. In the performance trial, four lactating cows were used in a 22 Latin square design with a 3 week sampling period. GTW was incorporated into TMR at a rate of 5.0% on a DM and 10.0% on a CP basis. Thus GTW replaced alfalfa hay and soybean meal at a level of 25.0% on a DM. DM and CP intake were not affected by the inclusion of GTW, whereas TET and CT intake were significantly increased (p<0.001). Milk production, milk composition and the efficiency of milk production were not altered by the GTW inclusion. Although ruminal pH and VFA, and blood urea nitrogen were not changed, ruminal and plasma total cholesterol were relatively low in the GTW group, but not significantly different. The excretion of urinary purine derivatives and estimated MN supply were also not significantly affected by GTW treatment. It is therefore concluded that GTW can be used as a protein source without any detrimental effects on the performance of lactating cows.
Green Tea Waste;Lactating Cows;Milk Yield;Protein;Tannin;
 Cited by
Ensiled or Oven-dried Green Tea By-product as Protein Feedstuffs: Effects of Tannin on Nutritive Value in Goats,;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2007. vol.20. 6, pp.880-886 crossref(new window)
The Effect of Yerba Mate (Ilex Paraguariensis) Supplementation on Nutrient Degradability in Dairy Cows: An In sacco and In vitro Study,;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2015. vol.28. 11, pp.1606-1613 crossref(new window)
Effects of supplementation with green tea by-products on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation in goats, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2015, 99, 6, 1127  crossref(new windwow)
Feeding value of supplemented diet with black tea by-product silage: Effect of polyethylene glycol addition to the diet on digestibility of protein fractions in goats, Grassland Science, 2007, 53, 3, 131  crossref(new windwow)
Chemical Composition, Plant Secondary Metabolites, and Minerals of Green and Black Teas and the Effect of Different Tea-to-Water Ratios during Their Extraction on the Composition of Their Spent Leaves as Potential Additives for Ruminants, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2013, 61, 20, 4961  crossref(new windwow)
Changes during ensilage in fermentation products, tea catechins, antioxidative activity andin vitro gas production of green tea waste stored with or without dried beet pulp, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2007, 87, 9, 1639  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of replacing soybean meal with dried rumen digesta on feed intake, digestibility of nutrients, rumen fermentation and nitrogen use efficiency in Thai cattle fed on rice straw, Livestock Science, 2014, 169, 71  crossref(new windwow)
The Effect of Yerba Mate (Ilex Paraguariensis) Supplementation on Nutrient Degradability in Dairy Cows: An In sacco and In vitro Study, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2015, 28, 11, 1606  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) supplementation on the productive performance of dairy cows during mid-lactation, Animal Production Science, 2010, 50, 6, 339  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) supplementation on the performance of dairy calves, Animal Production Science, 2010, 50, 6, 376  crossref(new windwow)
Evaluation of green tea by-product and green tea plus probiotics on the growth performance, meat quality and immunity of growing?finishing pigs, Animal Production Science, 2012, 52, 9, 857  crossref(new windwow)
Abdulrazak, S. A., R. W. Muinga, W. Thrope and E. R. Orskov. 1997. Supplementation with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on voluntary food intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and live weight of crossbred steers offered Zea mays stover. Livest. Prod. Sci. 49:53-62.

Abdulrazak, S. A., T. Fuhujara, J. K. Ondiek and E. R. Orskov. 2000a. Nutritive evaluation of some Acacia tree leaves in Kenya. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 85:89-98.

Abdulrazak, S. A., E. A. Orden, T. Ichinohe and T. Fujihara. 2000b. Chemical composition, phenolic concentration and in vitro gas production characteristics of selected Acacia fruits and leaves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:935-940.

Aerts, R. J., T. M. Barry and W. C. MacNabb. 1999. Polyphenols and agriculture: beneficial effects of proanthocyanidins in forages. Agriculture Ecosystem & Environment 75:1-12.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists 1984. Official Methods of Analysis, 13th Edn., AOAC, Washington, DC.

Barnett, A. J. G. 1951. The colorimetric determination of lactic acid in silage. Biochem. J. 49:527-529.

Ben Saem, H., A. Nefzaoui, L. Ben Salem and J. L. Tisserand. 1999. Different means of administering polyethylene glycol to sheep: effect on the nutritive value of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Foliage. Anim. Sci. 68:809-818.

Chen, X. B. and M. J. Gomes. 1992. Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives -an overview of the technical details. International Feed Resources Unit, Rowett Research Institute, Occasional Publication 1992, Aberdeen, UK.

Chen, X. B., A. T. Mejia, D. J. Kyle and E. R. Ørskov. 1995. Evaluation of the use of the purine derivative: creatinine ratio in spot urine and plasma samples as an index of microbial protein supply in ruminants: studies in sheep. J. Agirc. Sci. 125:137-143.

Cherney, D. J. R. 2000. Characterization of forage by chemical analysis. In: Forage Evaluation in ruminant nutrition (Ed. D. I. Givens, E. Owen, R. F. E. Axford and H. M. Omed). CABI International, Oxon, UK. pp. 281-300.

Chiou, P. W. S., C. R. Chen, K. J. Chen and B. Yu. 1998. Wet brewers’ grains or bean curd pomance as partial replacement of soybean meal for lactating cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 74:123-134.

Georing, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage fiber analysis. United States of Amierca, ARC. Handloook No. 379.

Graham, H. N. 1992. Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry. Preventive medicine 21:334-359. crossref(new window)

Huang, H. J., P. W. G. Chiou, C. R. Chen, J. K. Chiang and B. Yu. 1999. Effects of dried rice distillers’ and grain supplementation on the performance of lactating cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 77:303-315.

Hwang, S. Y., M. J. Lee and P. W. S. Chiou. 2000. Monitoring nutritional status of dairy cows in Taiwan using milk protein and milk urea nitrogen. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:1667-1673.

Jones, G. M., R. E. Larsen and N. M. Lanning. 1980. Prediction of silage digestibility and intake by chemical analyses or in vitro fermentation techniques. J. Dairy Sci. 63:579-586.

Kondo, M., K. Kita and H. Yokota. 2004a. Feeding value to goats of whole-crop oat ensilied with green tea waste. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 113:71-81.

Kondo, M., K. Kita and H. Yokota. 2004b. Effects of tea leaf waste of green tea, oolong tea, and black tea addition on sudangrass silage quality and in vitro gas production. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84:721-727.

Landau, L. S., N. Silanikove, Z. Nitsan, D. Barkai, H. Baram, F. D. Provenza and A. Perevolotsky. 2000. Short-term changes in eating patterns explain the effects of condensed tannins on feed intake in heifers. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 69:199-213.

Licitra, G., T. M. Hernandez and P. J. Van Soest. 1996. Standarization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminat feed. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 57:347-358.

Makkar, H. P. S. and A. V. Goodchild. 1996. Quantification of tannins: a laboratory manual, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria.

Nunez-Hernandez, G., J. D. Wallace, J. L. Holechek,, M. L. Galyean and M. Cardenas. 1991. Condensed tannins and nutrient utilization by lambs and goats fed low-quality diets. J. Anim. Sci. 69:1167-1177.

Ohshima, M., K. Miyase, N. Nishino and H. Yokota. 1991. Ruminal acid concentrations of goats fed hays and silages prepared from Italian ryegrass and its pressed cake. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 4:59-65.

Orskov, E. R. 1982. Protein nutrition in ruminants. Academic Press Inc. London.

Raederstorff, D. G., F. M. Schlachter, E. Volker and P. Weber. 2003. Effect of EGCG on lipid absorption and plasma lipid levels in rats. The J. Nutri. Biochem. 14:326-332.

Rubanza, C. D. K., M. N. Shem, R. Otsyina, T. Ichinohe and T. Fujihara. 2003. Nutritive evaluation of some browse tree legume foliages native to semi-arid areas in western Tanzania. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1429-1437.

Salawu, M. B., T. Acamovic, C. S. Stewart, T. Hvelplund and M. R. Weisbjerg. 1999. The use of tannins as silage additives: effects on silage composition and mobile bag disappearance of dry matter and protein. Anim. Feed Sci. Tehcnol. 82:243-259.

Santos, G. T., R. L. Oliveira, H. V. Petit, U. Cecato, L. N. Zeoula, L. P. Rigolon, J. C. Damasceno, A. F. Branco and V. Bett. 2000. Effect of tannic acid on composition and ruminal degradability of bermudagrass and alfalfa silages. J. Dairy Sci. 83:2016-2020.

SAS Institute 1992. Statview for windows, version 5.0, Cary NC, USA.

Silanikove, N., Z. Nitsan and A. Pfevolotsky. 1994. Effect of a daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol on intake and digestion of tannin-containing leaves (Cernatonia siliqua) by sheep. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:2844-2847.

Teddy, T., C. Yang and M. W. L. Koo. 1999. Chinese green tea lowers cholesterol level through an increase in fecal lipid excretion. Life Sci. 66:411-423.

Tolera, A., K. Khazaal and E. R. Orskov. 1997. Nutritive evaluation of some browse species. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 67:181-195.

Vinson, J. A. and Y. A. Dabbagh. 1998. Effect of green and black tea supplementation on lipids, lipid oxidation and fibrinogen in the hamster: mechanisms for the epidemiological benefits of tea drinking. FEMS letters. 433:44-46.

Woodward, A. and J. D. Reed. 1997. Nitrogen metabolism of sheep and goats consuming Acacia brevispica and Sesbania sesban. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1130-1139.

Yamamoto, T., L. R. Juneja, D. C. Chu and M. Kim. 1997. Chemistry and applications of green tea, CRC press. Florida, USA.

Yang, C. J., I. Y. Yang, D. H. Oh, I. H. Bae, S. G. Cho, I. G. Kong, D. Uuganbayar, I. S. Nou and K. S. Choi. 2003. Effect of green tea by-products on performance and body composition in broiler chicks. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:867-872.