AOAC. 1984. Official Methods of Analysis. 14th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia.
Arnold, R. N., S. C. Arp, K. K. Scheller, S. N. Williams and D. M. Schaefer. 1993. Tissue equilibration and subcellular distribution of vitamin E relative to myoglobin and lipid oxidation in displayed beef. J. Anim. Sci. 71:105-118.
Bennink, M. R. and K. Ono. 1982. Vitamin B12, E & D content of raw and cooked beef. J. Food Sci. 47:1786-1792.
Chan, W. K. M., K. Hakkarainen, C. Faustman, D. M. Schaefer, K. K. Scheller and Q. Liu. 1995. Color stability and microbial growth relationships in beef as affected by endogenous alphatocopherol. J. Food Sci. 60:966-971.
Faustman, C., R. G. Cassens, D. M. Schaefer, D. R. Buege, S. N. Williams and K. K. Sheller. 1989. Improvement of pigment and lipid stability in Holstein steer beef by dietary supplementation with vitamin E. J. Food Sci. 54:858-862.
Faustman, C. and R. G. Cassens. 1990. The biochemical basis for discoloration in fresh meat: a review. J. Muscle Foods 1:217-243.
Greene, B. E. 1969. Lipid oxidation and pigment changes in raw beef. J. Food Sci. 34:110-112.
Greene, B. E., I. Hsin and M. W. Zipser. 1971. Retardation of oxidative color changes in raw ground beef. J. Food Sci. 36:940-942.
Ito, M. and Y. Kondo. 1983. Myoglobin content of rib muscles of Japanese Shorthorn. Jpn. J. Dairy Food Sci. 32:61-65.
JMGA 1988. New Beef Carcass Grading Standards. Japan Meat Grading Association, Tokyo, Japan.
Kanner, J. and S. Harel. 1985. Initiation of membranal lipid peroxidation by activated metmyoglobin and methemoglobin. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 237:314-321.
Liu, Q., K. K. Scheller, S. C. Arp, D. M. Schaefer and S. N. Williams. 1996. Titration of fresh meat color stability and malondialdehyde development with Holstein steers fed vitamin E-supplemented diets. J. Anim. Sci. 74:117-126.
Mitsumoto, M., R. G. Cassens, D. M. Schaefer, R. N. Arnold and K. K. Scheller. 1991. Improvement of color and lipid stability in beef longissimus with dietary vitamin E and vitamin C dip treatment. J. Food Sci. 56:1489-1492.
Mitsumoto, M., S. Ozawa, T. Mitsuhashi, S. Kono, T. Harada, K. Fujita and K. Koide. 1995. Improvement of color and lipid stability during display in Japanese Black steers beef by dietary vitamin E supplementation for 4 weeks before slaughter. Anim. Sci. Technol. Jpn. 66:962-968.
Mitsumoto, M., S. Ozawa, T. Mitsuhashi and K. Koide. 1998. Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation for one week before slaughter on drip, colour and lipid stability during display in Japanese Black steer beef. Meat Sci. 49:165-174.
Muramoto, T., N. Nakanishi, M. Shibata and K. Aikawa. 2003a. Effect of dietary $\beta$-carotene supplementation on beef color stability during display of two muscles from Japanese Black steers. Meat Sci. 63:39-42.
Muramoto, T., M. Shibata and N. Nakanishi. 2003b. Effect of slaughter age on beef color stability during display of four muscles from Japanese Black steers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1364-1368.
Sanders, S. K., J. B. Morgan, D. M. Wulf, J. D. Tatum, S. N. Williams and G. C. Smith. 1997. Vitamin E supplementation of cattle and shelf-life of beef for the Japanese market. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2634-2640.
Sasaki, K., M. Mitsumoto and K. Kawabata. 2001. Relationship between lipid peroxidation and fat content in Japanese Black beef Longissimus muscle during storage. Meat Sci. 59:407-410.
SAS Institute Inc. 1985. SAS User's Guide: Statistics. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina.
Schaefer, D. M., Q. Liu, C. Faustman and M-C. Yin. 1995. Supranutritional administration of vitamins E and C improves oxidative stability of beef. J. Nutr. 125:1792S-1798S.
Stewart, M. R., M. W. Zipser and B. W. Watts. 1965. The use of reflectance spectrophotometry for the assay of raw meat pigments. J. Food Sci. 30:464-469.