Abrams, G. D., H. Baucr and H. Sprinz. 1963. Influence of the normal flora on mucosal cell morphology and cellular renewal. Laboratory Investigation, 12:355-363.
Angkanaporn, K., M. Choct, W. L. Bryden, E. F. Annison and G. Annison. 1994. Effect of wheat pentosans on endogenous amino acid losses in chickens. J. Sci. Food Agric. 66:399-404.
Annison, G. 1991. Relationship between the levels of soluble nonstarch polysaccharides and apparent metabolizable energy of wheats assayed in broiler chickens. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39:1252-1256.
Annition, G. 1992. Commercial enzyme supplementation of wheat-based diets raises ileal glycanase activities and improves apparent metabolizable energy, starch and pentosan digestibilities in broilers chickens. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 38:105-121.
Bedford, M. R. and H. L. Classen. 1992. Reduction of intestinal viscosity through manipulation of dietary rye and pentosanase concentration is effected through changes in the carbohydrate composition of the intestinal aqeous phase and result in improved wheats and food conversion efficiency of broiler chicks. J. Nutr. 122:560-569.
Bedford, M. R. and H. L. Classen. 1993. An in vitro assay for prediction of broiler intestinal viscosity and growth when fed rye-based diets in the presence of exogenous enzymes. Poult. Sci. 72:137-143.
Bedford, M. R., H. L. Classen and G. L. Camplbell. 1991. The effect of pelleting, Salt, and pentosanase on the viscosity of intestinal contents and the performance of broilers fed rye. Poult. Sci. 70:1571-1577.
Choct, M. 2001. Enzyme supplementation of poultry diets based on viscous cereals. Pages 145-160 in: Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition (Ed. M. R. Bedford and G. G. Partridge). CAB International.
Choct, M. and G. Annison. 1990. Anti-nutritive activity of wheat pentosans in broiler diets. Br. Poult. Sci. 31:811-822.
Choct, M. and G. Annison. 1992a. The inhibition of nutrient digestion by wheat pentosans. Br. J. Nutr. 67:123-132.
Choct, M. and G. Annison. 1992b. Anti-nutritive effect of wheat pentosans in broiler chickens: roles of viscosity and gut microflora. Br. Poult. Sci. 33:821-834.
Choct, M., R. J. Hughes, J. Wang, M. R. Befordand, A. J. Morgan and G. Annison. 1996. Increased small intestinal fermentation is partly responsible for the anti-nutritive activity of non-starch polysaccharides in chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 37:609-621.
Dänicke, S., O. Simon, H. Jeroch, K. Keller, K. Gläser, H. Kluge and M.R. Bedford. 1999. Effects of dietary fat type, pentosan level and xylanse supplementation on digestibility of energy in male broilers. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 52:245-261.
Dusel, G., H. Kluge and H. Jeroch. 1998. Xylanase supplementation of wheat-based rations for broilers: influence of wheat characteristics. J. Applied Poult. Sci. 7:119-131.
Edwards, C. A., I. T. Johson and N. W. Read. 1988. Do viscous polysaccharides slow absorption by inhibiting diffusion or convection? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 42:306-312.
Fincher, G. B. and B. A. Stone. 1986. Cell walls and their components in cereal grain technology. pp. vol. 8:207-295 in: Advances in Cereal Science and Technology (Ed. Y. Pomeranz) American Association of Cereal Chemists, Minnnesota.
He, T., P. A. Thacker, J. G. Mcleod and G. L. Campbell. 2003. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Normal and Low Viscosity Rye or Barley with or without Enzyme Supplementation. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(2):234-238.
Gohl, B. and I. Gohl. 1977. The effect of viscous substances on the transit time of barley digesta in rats. J. Sci. Food Agric. 28:911-915.
Grootwassink, J. W. D., G. L. Campbell and H. L. Classen. 1989. Fractionation of crude pentosanase (arabioxylanase) for improvement of the nutritional value of rye diets for broiler chicks. J. Sci. Food Agric. 46:289-300.
Henry, R. J. 1985. A comparison of the non-starch carbohydrates in cereal grains. J. Sci. Food Agric. 36:1243-1253.
Lesher, S. H. E. Jr. Wallbury and G. A. Sacher. 1964. Generation cycle in the duodenal crypt cells of germ-free and conventional mice. Nature, 202:884-886.
Li, W. F., J. Y. Sun and Z. R. Xu. 2004. Effects of NSP Degrading Enzyme on In vitro Digestion of Barley. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(1):122-126.
Low, A. G. 1989. Secretory response of the pig gut to non-starch polysaccharides. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 23:55-65.
Mares, D. J. and B. A. Stone. 1973. Study on wheat endosperm. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 26:793-812.
MacAuliffe, M. A. and J. McGinnis. 1971. Effect of antibiotic supplements to diets containing rye on chick growth. Poult. Sci. 50:1130-1134.
Miller, G. L. 1959. Use of dinitrosolicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal. Chem. 31:426-428.
Misir, R. and R. R. Marquardt. 1978a. Factors affecting rye utilization in growing chicks. I. The influence of rye level, ergot and penicillin supplementation. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 58:691-701.
Misir, R. and R. R. Marquardt. 1978b. Factors affecting rye utilization in growing chicks. II. The influence of protein type, protein level, and penicillin. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 8: 703-715.
National Research Council, 1994. Nutrient Requirement of Poultry. 9th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Peng, Y. L., Y. M. Guo and J. M. Yuan. 2003. Effects of Microbial Phytase Replacing Partial Inorganic Phosphorus Supplementation, and Xylanase on the Growth Performance and Nutritient Digestibility in Broilers Fed Wheat-based Diets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(2):239-247.
Pettersson, D. 1987. Substitution of maize with different levels of wheat, triticale or rye in diets for broiler chickens. Swed. J. Agric. Res. 17:57-62.
Preston, C. M., K. J. McCracken and M. R. Bedford. 2001. Effect of wheat content, fat source and enzyme supplementation on diet metabolisability and broiler performance. Br. Poult. Sci. 42:625-632.
Rogel, A. M., E. F. Annison, W. L. Bryden and D. Balnave. 1987. The digestion of wheat starch in broiler chickens. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 38:639-649.
Selle, P. H., V. Ravindran, G. Ravindran, P. H. Pittolo and W. L. Bryden. 2003. Influence of Phytase and Xylanase Supplementation on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilisation of Broilers Offered Wheat-based Diets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(3):394-402.
SPSS for Windows Base System User's Guide Release 8.0. Marija J. Norusis/SPSS Inc.
Steenfeldt, S., M. Hammershoj, A. Mullertz and J. F. Jensen. 1998. Enzyme supplementation of wheat-based diets for broilers. 2. Effect of apparent metabolizable energy content and nutrient digestibility. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 75:45-64.
Veldman, A. and H. A. Vahl. 1994. Xylanase in broiler diets with differences in characteristics and content of wheat. Br. Poult. Sci. 35:537-550.