JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Utilization of Graded Levels of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) in Place of Yellow Maize in Commercial Broiler Chicken Diets
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Utilization of Graded Levels of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) in Place of Yellow Maize in Commercial Broiler Chicken Diets
Rama Rao, S.V.; Raju, M.V.L.N.; Reddy, M.R.; Panda, A.K.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
An experiment was conducted to study the performance, carcass traits, serum lipid profile and immune competence in commercial broilers (2 to 42 d of age) fed graded levels (25, 50, 75 and 100%) of finger millet (FM) (Elusine coracana) in place (w/w) of yellow maize (YM). Each diet was fed to eight replicates (five female Vencobb broilers/replicate) housed in stainless steel battery brooders. The estimated metabolizable energy content of FM was about 540 kcal less than the YM. FM contained more protein (10.42 vs. 9.05%) and fibre (9.52 vs. 2.24%) compared to YM. Body weight gain, ready to cook yield, relative weights of giblet, liver, intestine and length of intestine at 42 d of age was not affected due to replacing YM with FM. But, the feed efficiency decreased in broilers fed diets containing 75 and 100% FM in place of YM at both 21 and 42 d of age. The amount of fat deposited in abdominal area decreased and the relative weight of gizzard increased with increase in level of FM in the diet. The serum HDL cholesterol at 21 and 42 d of age and serum triglycerides at 42 d of age decreased with increase in level of FM in diet. The relative weight of spleen and antibody titers against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) at 5 d post inoculation (PI) decreased in broilers fed FM at 100% of YM. However, the relative weight of bursa, SRBC titers at 10 d PI, antibody titers against ND virus and mortality were not affected due to incorporation of FM in place of YM in diet. The fat content in thigh muscle and liver decreased, while the protein content in these tissues increased with increase in the level of FM in broiler diet. Based on the results, it may be concluded that YM can be replaced with FM up to 25% on weight basis without affecting weight gain, carcass yields and immunity in commercial broiler diet (up to 42 d of age). Further, inclusion of finger millet reduced the fat deposition in thigh muscle, liver and in abdominal area compared to those fed maize as the principal source of energy.
 Keywords
Finger Millet;Broiler Chicken;Growth;Carcass Traits;Immunity;Serum Cholesterol;Triglycerides;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Annon. 1995. Directorate of Economic, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation. Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India, Agricultural situation in India Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi, India.

2.
Asha Rajini, R., S. Rukmangadhan, R. Ravindran, B. Mohan, B. Murugandhan and K. Vedhanayagam. 1986. Replacing maize with other grains in broiler diet. Indian J. Poult. Sci. 21:343-344.

3.
Association of Official Analytical Chemistry 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, 14th Edn (Washington, DC Association of Official Analytical Chemists).

4.
Bourdillon, A., B. Carre, L. Conan, J. Duperray, G.Huyghebaert, B. Leclercq, M. Lessire, J. Mcnab and J. Wiseman. 1990. European reference method for the in vivo determination of metabolizable energy with adult cockerels: reproducibility, effect of food intake and comparison with individual laboratory methods. Br. Poult. Sci. 31:557-565.

5.
Dinber, J. J., M. L. Kitchell, C. A. Atwell and F. J. Ivey. 1996. The effect of dietary ingredients and age on the microscopic structure of the gastrointestinal tract in poultry. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 5:70-77.

6.
Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple 'F' test. Biometrics, 11:1-42.

7.
Eits, R. M., R. P. Kwakkel, M. W. A. Verstegen, P. Stoutjesdik and K. H. De Greef. 2002. Protein and lipid deposition rates in male broiler chickens: Separate responses to amino acids and protein-free energy. Poult. Sci. 81:472-480.

8.
Hill, R., W. W. Webster, J. M. Linaxasoro and I. L. Chaidoff. 1960. Time of occurrence of changes in the liver capacity to utilize acetate for fatty acid synthesis and cholesterol synthesis after fat feeding. J. Lipid Res. 1:150-156.

9.
Kumar, A. M. R., V. R. Reddy, P. V. V. S. Reddy and P. S. Reddy. 1991. Utilization of pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) for egg production. Br. Poult. Sci. 32:463-469.

10.
NRC. 1994. Nutrient requirements of domestic animals. No. 1 Nutrient Requirements for Poultry. 9th Edition, National Research Council, Washington, DC.

11.
Nyachoti, C. M., J. L. Atkinson and S. Leeson. 1996. Response of broiler chickens fed a high tannin sorghum diet. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 5:239-245.

12.
Rachie, K. O. and L. V. Peters. 1977. The Elusines-A review of the world literature. International Crops Research Institute for Semi-arid Tropics, Hyderabad, India.

13.
Rama Rao, S. V., M. R. Reddy, N. K. Praharaj and G. Shyam Sunder. 2000. Laying performance of broiler breeder chickens fed various millets or broken rice as a source of energy at a constant nutrient intake. Tropical Anim. Health Prod. 32:329-338.

14.
Rama Rao, S.V., M.V.L.N. Raju, R.R.Reddy and A.K.Panda. 2004. Replacement of Yellow maize with pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides), foxtail millet (Setaria italica) or finger millet (Eleusine Coracana) in broiler chicken diets containing supplemental enzymes. Asian-Aust.J. Animal. Sci. 17:836-842.

15.
Rama Rao, S. V., G. Shyamsunder, A. K. Panda, M. R. Reddy, M. V. L. N. Raju and N. K. Praharaj. 2002. Utilization of different millets as alternatives for maize in coloured broiler chicken diet. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 19:353-358.

16.
Reddy, P. S. and D. Narahari. 1997. Utilization of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and its processed forms on performance of broilers. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 67:237-240.

17.
Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1980. Statistical Methods 7th Edn. Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University Press.

18.
Srilatha Rani, P. 1995. Effect of replacement of maize with FM (ground and unground) on growth and egg production in chicken. M.V.Sc. Thesis, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Hyderabad, India.

19.
Venkateswara Rao, M. 1995. Studies on utilization of ragi (Elusine coracana) in broiler diets. M.V.Sc. Thesis, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Hyderabad, India

20.
Wegmann, T. G. and O. Smithies. 1966. A simple haemagglutinaoin system requiring small amounts of red blood cells and antibody. Transfusion, 6:67-73.

21.
Weiss, J. F., E. C. Naber and R. M. Johnson. 1967. Effects of dietary fat and cholesterol on the vitro incorporation of Acetate14 C into hen liver and ovarian lipids. J. Nutr. 93:142-154.