AMSA. 1990. Recommended Procedures for Beef Carcass Evaluation and Carcass Contests. 3rd edn. American Meat Science Association, Chicago, IL.
Berg, R. T. and R. M. Butterfield. 1976. New Concepts of Cattle Growth. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Berg, R. T. and L. E. Walters. 1983. The meat animal: Changes and challenges. J. Anim. Sci. 57(Supp. 2):133-146.
Bidner, T. D., A. R. Schupp, R. E. Montgomery and J. C. Carpenter Jr. 1981. Acceptability of beef finished on all-forage, forage-plus-grain or high-energy diets. J. Anim. Sci. 53:1181-1187.
Bidner, T. D., A. R. Schupp, A. B. Mohamad, N. C. Rumore, R. E. Montgomery, C. P. Bagley and K. W. McMillin. 1986. Acceptability of beef from Angus-Hereford or Angus-Hereford-Brahman steers finished on all-forage or a highenergy diet. J. Anim. Sci. 62:381-387.
Breidenstein, B. C., J. C. Madamba, W. W. Albert, H. W. Norton and A. L. Newman. 1965. Influence of type, slaughter weight, energy level and stilbesterol on steer carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 24:860.
Brown, A. H., Jr., J. J. Chewning, Z. B. Johnson, W. C. Lowe and C. J. Brown. 1991. Effects of 84-, 112- and 140-day postweaning feedlot performance tests for beef bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 69:451-461.
Brown, J. E., C. J. Brown and W. T. Butts. 1972a. A discussion of the genetic aspects of weight, mature weight and rate of maturing in Hereford and Angus cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 34:525-537.
Brown, J. E., C. J. Brown and W. T. Butts. 1972b. Relationships among weights, gains and earliness of maturing in Hereford and Angus females. J. Anim. Sci. 35:507-517.
Butts, W. T. Jr., W. R. Backus, E. R. Widell, J. A. Corrick and R. E. Montgomery. 1980. Relationships among definable characteristics of feeder calves, subsequent performance and carcass traits. I. Objective measurements. J. Anim. Sci. 51:1297-1305.
Camfield, P. K., A. H. Brown, Jr., Z. B. Johnson, C. J. Brown, P. K. Lewis and L. Y. Rakes. 1999. Effects of growth type on carcass traits of pasture- or feedlot-developed steers. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2437-2443.
Consortium. 1998. Guide for care and use of agricultural animals in agricultural research and teaching. Consortium for Developing a Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching, Champaign, IL.
Dixon, R. M. and C. R. Stockdale. 1999. Associative effects between forages and grains: consequences for feed utilisation. Austr. J. Agric. Res. 50:757-73.
Ensminger, M. E. and R. C. Perry. 1997. Beef Cattle Science. 7th edn. Interstate Publishers, Inc. p. 785.
Flora, C. B. 2001. Midwestern beef and the environment. The ecosystem strengths of better integrated value chains. Paper presented at Midwest Region Commodities and the Environment Conference. Chicago, IL.
Gregory, K. E., L. V. Cundiff, R. M. Koch, M. E. Dikeman and M. Koohmaraie. 1994. Breed effects and retained heterosis for growth, carcass, and meat traits in advanced generations of composite populations of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 72:833-850.
Harrison, A. R., M. E. Smith, D. M. Allen, M. C. Hunt, C. L. Kastner and D. H. Kropf. 1978. Nutritional regime effects on quality and yield characteristis of beef. J. Anim. Sci. 47:383-388.
Heitschmidt, R. K., R. E. Short and E. E. Grings. 1996. Ecosystems, Sustainability, and Animal Agriculture. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1395-1405.
Hunter, R. A., H. M. Barrow and G. J. McCrabb. 2001. Sustained growth promotion, carcass and meat quality of steers slaughtered at three live weights. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 41:1033-1040.
Johnson, Z. B., C. J. Brown and A. H. Brown, Jr. 1990. Evaluation of beef growth patterns of beef cows. Ark Agric. Exp. Sta. Bul. 923.
Keele, J, W., C. B. Williams and G. L. Bennett. 1992. A computer model to predict the effects of level of nutrition on composition of empty body gain in beef cattle: Theory and development. J. Anim. Sci. 70:841-857.
Koch, R. M., M. E. Dikeman, D. M. Allen, M. May, J. D. Crouse and D. R. Campion. 1976. Characterization of biological types of cattle. III. Carcass composition, quality and palatibility. J. Anim. Sci. 43:48-62.
Koch, R. M., M. E. Dikeman, R. J. Lipsey, D. M. Allen and J. D. Crouse. 1979. Characterization of biological types of cattlecycle II:III. Carcass composition, quality and palatability. J.Anim. Sci. 49:448-460.
Koch, R. M., M. E. Dikeman and J. D. Crouse. 1982. Composition of biological types of cattle (cycle III). Carcass composition, quality and palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 54:35-45.
Luitingh, H. C. 1963. The efficiency of beef production in terms of carcass-weight increase as influenced by the ration concentration and the age of the steers. J. Agric. Sci. 61:127-134.
McCarty, F. D., D. R. Hawkins and W. G. Bergen. 1985. Dietary energy density and frame size effects on composition of grain in feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 60:781-790.
McKeith, F. K., J. W. Savell, G. C. Smith, T. R. Dutson and Z. L. Carpenter. 1985. Tenderness of major muscles from three breed-types of cattle at different times-on-feed. Meat Sci. 13:151-166.
NRC. 1996. Nutrient Requires of Beef Cattle. 7th edn. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C.
Oltjen, R. R., T. S. Rumsey and P. A. Putnam. 1971. All-forage diets for finishing beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 32:327-33.
Preston, T. R., F. G. Whitelaw, J. N. Aitken, A. Macdearmid and E. B. Charleson. 1963. Intensive beef production. 1. Performance of cattle given complete ground diets. Anim. Prod. 5:47-51.
Preston, T. R and M. B. Willis. 1979. Intensive Beef Production. 2nd edn. Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, New York.
Robinson, D. L., D. M. Ferguson, V. H. Oddy, D. Perry and J. Thompson. 2001a. Genetic and environmental influences on beef tenderness. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 41:997-1003.
Robinson, D. L., V. H. Oddy, R. W. Dicker and M. J. Mchee. 2001b. Post-weaning growth of cattle in Northern New South Wales. 3. Carry over effects on finishing, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 41:1041-1049.
Sainz, R. D., F. De la Torre and J. W. Oltjen. 1995. Compensatory growth and carcass quality in growth-restricted and refed beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2971-2979
Schroeder, J. W., D. A. Cramer, R. A. Bowling and C. W. Cook. 1980. Palatability, shelflife, and chemical differences between forage- and grain-fed beef. J. Anim. Sci. 50:852-859.
Taylor St., C. S. and H. A. Fitzhugh, Jr. 1971. Genetic relationships between mature weight and time taken to mature within a breed. J. Anim. Sci. 33:726-731.
Taylor, R. E. and T. G. Field. 1999. Beef production and management decision. 3rd ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc. p. 403
Tudor, G. D. 1992. Effect of diet on fat deposition in cattle. Proceedings Australian Society Animal Production 19:89.
USDA 1989. Official United States Standards for grades of carcass beef. Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA, Washington, DC.
Vallentine, J. F. 1990. Grazing Management. Academic Press, Inc. New York.
Wales, W. J., J. B. Moran and R. W. Harris. 1998. A comparison of growth rates and carcass quality of steers receiving maize silage as a supplement to annual pasture or as a component of a feedlot ration. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 38:1-6.
Young, A. W. and R. G. Kauffman. 1978. Evaluation of beef from steers fed grain, corn silage or haylage-corn silage diets. J. Anim. Sci. 46:41-47.