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Principles of Physiology of Lipid Digestion
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 Title & Authors
Principles of Physiology of Lipid Digestion
Bauer, E.; Jakob, S.; Mosenthin, R.;
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The processing of dietary lipids can be distinguished in several sequential steps, including their emulsification, hydrolysis and micellization, before they are absorbed by the enterocytes. Emulsification of lipids starts in the stomach and is mediated by physical forces and favoured by the partial lipolysis of the dietary lipids due to the activity of gastric lipase. The process of lipid digestion continues in the duodenum where pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PTL) releases 50 to 70% of dietary fatty acids. Bile salts at low concentrations stimulate PTL activity, but higher concentrations inhibit PTL activity. Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase activity is regulated by colipase, that interacts with bile salts and PTL and can release bile salt mediated PTL inhibition. Without colipase, PTL is unable to hydrolyse fatty acids from dietary triacylglycerols, resulting in fat malabsorption with severe consequences on bioavailability of dietary lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Furthermore, carboxyl ester lipase, a pancreatic enzyme that is bile salt-stimulated and displays wide substrate reactivities, is involved in lipid digestion. The products of lipolysis are removed from the water-oil interface by incorporation into mixed micelles that are formed spontaneously by the interaction of bile salts. Monoacylglycerols and phospholipids enhance the ability of bile salts to form mixed micelles. Formation of mixed micelles is necessary to move the non-polar lipids across the unstirred water layer adjacent to the mucosal cells, thereby facilitating absorption.
Gastric Lipase;Pancreatic Triacylglycerol Lipase;Emulsification;Bile Salts;Colipase;Carboxyl Ester Lipase;
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