Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Role of Dietary Zinc as a Nutritional Immunomodulator
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Role of Dietary Zinc as a Nutritional Immunomodulator
Goswami, T.K.; Bhar, R.; Jadhav, S.E.; Joardar, S.N.; Ram, G.C.;
  PDF(new window)
Zinc is ubiquitous in all living cells. Structural and catalytic properties of cellular enzymes are zinc dependent. Zinc deficiency leads to a variety of pathological abnormalities with immune impairment. It is an established fact that nutritional status contributes to overall immune response of individuals. Outcome of zinc deficiency on immune system is so drastic that it is difficult to conceive at the first instance. Zinc supplementation has been advocated to prevent diarrheal disease in children with poor nutritional status. The bioavailability of zinc depends upon its sources. Moreover it varies between monogastrics and ruminants. Controversy still prevails between inorganic and organic sources of zinc with respect to their superiority in bioavailability. Zinc exerts immunostimulatory effects in various laboratory and farm animals. Animals having congenital zinc deficiency diseases like A46 lethal trait usually die due to impairment of the immune system unless treated with zinc. The immune mechanism of zinc and its effect on animals and man are discussed. Zinc has been considered as extremely safe at higher therapeutic doses, but does not provide any beneficial effect but rather may cause immunosuppression. More recently, zinc has been prescribed for immunodeficient hosts, to modulate the immune system so that to a certain extent it can combat against opportunistic pathogens.
Animal;Dietary Zinc;Immunomodulation;
 Cited by
Effects of Supplementing with Single or Multiple Trace Minerals on Growth Performance, Fecal Mineral Excretion and Nutrient Utilization in Pullets from 1 to 18 Weeks of Age,;;;;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2007. vol.20. 6, pp.976-982 crossref(new window)
Effects of Varying Dietary Zinc Levels and Environmental Temperatures on the Growth Performance, Feathering Score and Feather Mineral Concentrations of Broiler Chicks,;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2010. vol.23. 7, pp.937-945 crossref(new window)
Effect of dose and source of supplemental zinc on immune response and oxidative enzymes in lambs, Veterinary Research Communications, 2009, 33, 7, 631  crossref(new windwow)
Case-Control Study of a Multistate Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Outbreak, Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2013, 27, 2, 339  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of zinc supplementation on catch-up growth in children with failure to thrive, Nutrition Research and Practice, 2017, 11, 6, 487  crossref(new windwow)
Immunomodulatory basis of antioxidant therapy and its future prospects: an appraisal, Inflammopharmacology, 2017, 25, 5, 487  crossref(new windwow)
AAFC. 1998. (Association of American Feed Control Officials). Official Publication, USA.

Acda, S. P. and B. J. Choe. 2002. Effects of organic trace minerals supplementation on sows reproductive and neonate’s growth performance through 2nd week post weaning. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:1312-1318.

Aggett, P. J. and J. G. Comerford. 1995. Zinc and human health. Nutr. Rev. 53:S16-S22.

Agricultural Research Council. 1980. The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Commonwealth Agric. Bureaux..

Alleyne, G. A. and V. H. Young. 1967. Adrenocortical function in children with severe protein calorie malnutrition. Clin. Sci. 33:189-200.

Andresen, E., A. Basse, E. Brummmerstedt and T. Flagstad. 1974. Lethal trait A-46 in cattle. Additional genetic investigations. Nord. Veternaermed. 26:273-278.

Arrayet, J. L., A. M. Oberbauer, T. R. Famula, I. Garnett, J. W. Oltjen, J. Imhoof, M. E. Kehrli and W. T. Grahm. 2002. Growth of Holestein calves from birth to 90 days: the influence of dietary zinc and BLAD status. J. Anim. Sci. 80:545-552.

Bernatchez, C., R. Al-Daccak, P. E. Mayer, K. Mehindate, L. Rink, S. Mecheri and W. Mourad. 1997. Functional analysis of micoplasma arthritidis-derived mitogen interaction with Class II molecules. Infect. Immu. 65:200-205.

Bhar, R., S. K. Maiti, T. K. Goswami, A. K. Garg, A. Chabra and Satyapal. 2001. Effect of Vitamin C and zinc as feed supplement on wound healing, antibody response and productivity in swine. In: 8th Annual Conference of Indian Association for Advancement of Veterinary Research, Ludhiana, India. p. 27.

Bhar, R., S. K. Maiti, T. K. Goswami, R. C. Patra, A. K. Garg and A. K. Chabra. 2003. Effect of dietary vitamin C and zinc supplementation on wound healing, immune-response in swine. Ind. J. Anim. Sci. 73:674-677.

Bone, R. C. 1991. The pathogenesis of sepsis. Ann. Intern. Med. 115:457-469

Bosi, P. 2000. Modulation of immune response and barrier function in the piglets gut by dietary means. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13(Supp):278-293.

Bosi, P., C. Gremo Kolini and P. Trevisi. 2003. Dietary regulation of the intestinal barrier functions at weaning. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:596-608.

Braunschweig, C. L., M. Sowers, D. S. Kovacevich, G. M. Hill and D. A. August. 1997. Parenteral zinc supplementation in adult human during the acute phase response increases the febrile response. J. Nut. 122:70-74.

Brummerstedt, E., E. Andresen, A..Basse and T. Flagstad. 1974. Lethal trait A-46 in cattle. Immunological investigations. Nord. Veternaermed. 26:279-293.

Burns, R. B. 1983. Antibody production suppressed in the domestic fowl by zinc deficiency. Avian. Pathol. 12:141-146.

Carlson, M. S., G. M. Hill and J. E. Link. 1999. Early-and traditionally weaned nursery pigs benefit from phase feeding pharmacological concentration of zinc oxide; effect on metallothionein and mineral concentrations. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1199-1207.

Caulfield, L. E., N. Zavateta and A. Figueroa. 1999. Adding zinc to prenatal iron and folate supplements improve maternal and neonatal zinc status in a peruvian population. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69:1257-1263.

Chandra, R. K. 1984. Excessive intake of zinc impairs immune responses. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 252:1443-1446.

Chandra, R. K and P. Newberne. 1977. Nutrition immunity and infection. Plenum Press. New. York.

Chesters, J. K., L. Patrie and K. Lipson. 1993. Two zinc dependant steps during G1 to S phase transition. J. Cell. Physiol. 155:445-451.

Chesters, J. K. 1997. Zinc. In: Hand Book of Nutritionally Essential Mineral Elements (Ed. B. L. O’Dell and R. A. Sunde) Marcel Dekker Inc. New York. pp. 185-230.

Chirase, N. K., D. P. Hutcheson, G. B. Thompson and J. W. Spears. 1994. Recovery rate and plasma zinc and copper concentration of steer calves fed organic and inorganic zinc and manganese source with or without injectable copper and challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. J. Anim. Sci. 72:212-219.

Cohen, J. J. and R. C. Duke. 1984. Glucocorticoid activation of calcium dependant endonucleases in thymocyte nuclei leads to cell death. J. Immunol. 132:38-42.

Coleman, J. E. 1992. Zinc proteins: enzymes, storage proteins, transcription factors and replication proteins. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 16:897-946.

Cook-Mills, J. and P. J. Fraker. 1993. Functional capacity of residual lymphocytes from zinc-deficient adult mice. Br. J. Nutr. 69:835-848.

Corah, L. R., D. A. Dargatz and C. W. Peters. 1996. NAHMS forage Survey. Trace mineral analysis of 352 forage samples collected in 18 states. J. Anim. Sci. 74(Suppl 1):202 (Abstr.).

Coto, J. A., E. M. Hadden, M. Sauro, N. Zom and J. W. Hadden. 1992. Interleukin-1 regulate secretion of zinc-thymulin by human thymic epithelial cells and its action on T lymphocyte proliferation and nuclear protein kinase C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89:7752-7758.

Cousins, R. J. and R. J. McMahon. 2000. Integrative aspects of zinc transporters. J. Nutr. 130 (Suppl):1384-1387.

Cui, H., F. Jing and P. Xi. 2003: pathology of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius in zinc deficient ducklings. Avian Pathol. 32(3):259-264.

Cunningham-Rundles, S., R. S. Bockman, A. Lin, P. V. Giardina, M. W. Hilgartner, D. Caldwell-Brown and D. M. Carter. 1980. Physiological and pharmacological effects of zinc on immuneresponse., Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 1980, 587, 113-122.

Dardenne, M., J. M. Pleau, B. Nabarra, P. Lefancier, M. Derrien, J. Choay and J. E. Bach. 1982. Contribution of zinc and other metals to the biological activity of serum thymic factor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 79:5370-5373.

Donmezz, H. H., M. A. Karsli, I. Meral, N. Donmez and N. Simsek. 2002. Effects of increasing zinc supplementation in drinking water on growth and thyroid gland function and histology in broiler chicks. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 109(10):438-442.

Dorke, E. A. and J. W. Spears. 1993: In vitro and in vivo immunological measurements in growing lambs fed diets deficient, marginal or adequate in zinc. J. Nutr. Immunol. 2:71.

Dorke, E. A., G. P. Gengelbach and J. W. Spears. 1998. Influence of level and source (inorganic versus organic) of zinc supplementation on immune function in growing lambs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 11:139-144

Dowd, P. S., J. Kelher and P. J. Guillou. 1986. T-lymphocytes subsets and interleukin-2 production in zinc deficient rats. Br. J. Nutr. 55:59-69.

Driessen, C., K. Hirv, L. Rink and H. Kirchner. 1994. Induction of cytokines by zinc ions in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and separated monocytes. Lymphokine Cytokine Res. 13:15-20.

Driessen, C., K. Hirv, H. Kirchner and L. Rink. 1995a. Zinc regulates cytokines induction by super antigens and lipopolysaccharides, Immunology. 84:272-277

Driessen, C., K. Hirv, H. Kirchner and L. Rink. 1995b. Divergent effects of zinc on different bacterial pathogenic agents. J. Infect. Dis. 171:486-489

Edwards, H. M. and D. H. Baker. 1999. Bioavailability of zinc in several sources of zinc oxide, zincs sulfate, and zinc metal. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2730-2735

Endre, L., F. Beck and A. Prasad. 1990. The role of zinc in human health. J. Trace Elem. Exp. Med. 3:337.

Feng, J. and J. Cheng. 1993: Effect of zinc on the function of immune cells in vitro. Acta. Nutriment Sincia. 15:275-279.

Fenwick, P. K., P. J. Aggett, D. Macdonald C. Hubber and D. Wakelin 1990a. Zinc deficiency and zinc repletion: effect on the response of rat to infection with Trichinella spiralis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52:166-172.

Fenwick, P.K., P. J. Aggett, D. Macdonald, C. Hubber and D. Wakelin. 1990b. Zinc deprivation and zinc repletion: effect on the response of rats to infection with Strongyloides ratii. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52:173-177.

Flagstad, T. 1976. Lethal trait A-46 in cattle. Intestinal zinc absorption. Nord. Veternaermed. 28:160-169.

Fosmire, G. J. 1990. Zinc toxicity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51:225-227.

Fraker, P. J., M. E. Gershwin, R. A. Good and A. Prasad. 1986. Interrelationships between zinc and immune functions. Fed. Proc. 45:1474-1479.

Fraker, P. J., L. King, B. Garvy and C. Medina. 1993. Immunopathology of zinc deficiency: a role for apoptosis In: Human Nutrition: A comprehensive Treatise (Ed. D. Klurfeld). Plenum Press. New York. pp. 267-283.

Fraker, P. J. and W. Telford. 1997. A reappraisal of the role of zinc in the life and death decisions of life. Proc. Soc. Expt. Med. 215:229-236.

Fraser, J. D., R. G. Urban, J. L. Strominger and H. Robinson. 1992. Zinc regulates the functionof two super antigens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89:5507-5511.

Garvy, B., L. King, W. Telford, L. Morford and P. J. Fraker. 1993. Chronic level of corticosterone reduces the number of cycling cells of the B lineage in murine bone marrow and induces apoptsis. Immunology 80:587-592.

GfE (Gesellschaft fur Errnahrungsphysiologie) Ausschu$\beta$ fur Bedarfsnormen. 1987. Empfehlungen zur Energie-und Nahrstoffversorgung der Schweine DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt (Main).

GfE (Gesellschaft fur Errnahrungsphysiologie) Ausschu$\beta$ fur Bedarfsnormen. 1999. Empfehlungen zur Energie-und Nahrstoffversorgung der Legehennen und Masthuhnerr (broiler). DLG Verlag Frankfurt (Main).

GfE (Gesellschaft fur Errnahrungsphysiologie) Ausschu$\beta$ fur Bedarfsnormen. 2001. Empfehlungen zur Energie-und Nahrstoffversorgung der Mastrinder DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt am (Main).

GfE (Gesellschaft fur Errnahrungsphysiologie)Ausschu$\beta$ fur Bedarfsnormen. 2003. Empfehlungen zur Energie-und Nahrstoffversorgung der Mastputen DLG Verlag, Frankfurt (Main).

Goldenberg, R. L., T. Tamura, Y. Neggers, R. L. Copper, K. E. Johnson, M. B. Dubard and J. C. Hauth. 1995. The effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcome, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 274:463-468.

Goswami, T. K., G. C. Ram and D. K. Singh. 2002. Influence of zinc on the immune system. Pashudhan, 17:4,8.

Greene, L. W., D. K. Lunt, F. M. Byers, N. K. Chirase, C. E. Richmond, R. E. Knutson and G. T. Schelling. 1988. Performance and carcass quality of steers supplemented with zinc oxide and zinc methionine. J. Anim. Sci. 66:1818-1823.

Greskas, D., P. Alivanis, N. Kotzadamis, M. Kiriazopoulos and A. Tourkantonis. 1992. Influenza vaccination in chronic haemodialysis patients. The effect of zinc supplementation. Renal Failuure. 14:575-578.

Hadden, J. W. 1995. The treatment of zinc as immunotherapy. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 17:697-701.

Hambidge, K. M., C. E. Casey and N. F. Krebs. 1986. Zinc. In: Trace elements in human and animal nutrition, Vo.2 (Ed. W. Mertz) Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 1-37.

Hambidge, K. M. and P. A. Walravens. 1982. Disorders of mineral metabolism. Clin. Gastroenterol. 11:87-118.

Hatfield, P. G., B. L. Robinson, D. L. Minikheim, R. W. Kott, N. I. Roth, J. T. Daniels and C. K. Swenson. 2002. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1329-1334.

Hempe, J. M. and R. J. Cousins. 1989: Effects of EDTA and zinc methionin complex on zinc absorption by rat intestine. J. Nutr. 119:1179-1187.

Humphery-Smith, I. and W. Blackstock. 1997. Proteome analysis: genomic via the out put rather than input code. J. Prot. Chem. 16:537-544.

Keen, C. and M. Gershwin. 1990. Zinc deficiency and immune function. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 10:415-431.

Kehrli, M. E., Jr., M. R. Ackermann, D. E. Shuster, M. J. Van Der Maaten, F. C. Schmalstieg, D. C. Anderson and B. J. Hughes. 1992. Animal model of human disease: Bovine leucosis adhesion deficiency: B2 integrin deficiency in young Holstein cattle. Am. J. Pathol. 140:1489-1492.

Kelin, D. and T. Mann. 1939. Carbonic anhydrase. Nature 144:442-443.

Kidd, M. T., M. A. Qureshi, P. R. Ferkett and L. N. Thomas. 1994a. Blood clearance of Escherichia coli and evaluation of mononuclear phagocytic system as influenced by supplemental dietary zinc-methionine in young turkeys. Poult. Sci. 73:1381-1389.

Kidd, M. T., M. A. Qureshi, P. R. Ferkett and L. N. Thomas. 1994b. Dietary zinc-methionine enhances mononuclear phagocytic function in young turkeys. Biol. Trace. Elmt. Res. 42:217-229.

Kim, J., R. G. Urban, J. L. Strominger and D. C. Wiley. 1994. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 complexed with a Class-II major histocompatibility molecule HLA-DR-I. Science 266:1870-1878.

Kincaid, R. L., B. P. Chew and J. D. Cronrath. 1997. Zinc oxide and amino acids as source of dietary zinc for calves: Effects on uptake and immunity. J. Dairy. Sci. 80:1381-1388.

King, J. C. 1990. Assessment of zinc status. J. Nutr. 120 (Suppl): 1474-1479.

Kirchner, H. and H. Ruhl. 1970. Stimulation of human peripheral lymphocytes by $Zn^{2+}$ in vitro. Exp. Cell. Res. 61:229-230.

Klingman, D. and D. C. Hilt. 1988. The S-100 protein family. TIBS. 13:437.

Klosterhalfen, B., C. Tons, S. Hauptmann, L. Tietze, F. A. Offner, W. Kupper and C. J. Kirpatrick. 1996. Influence of heat shock protein 70 and metallothioneins induction by zinc-bis (DLhydrogenaspartate) on the release of inflammatory mediators in a porcine model of recurrent endotoxemia. Biochem. Pharmacol. 52:1201-1210.

Kraehenbuhl, J. P. and M. R. Neutra. 2000. Epithelial M cells: differentiation and function. Ann. Rev. Cell. Devp. Biol. 16:301-332.

Kriegesmann, B., S. Jansen, B. Baumgartner and B. Brening. 1997. Partial genomic structure of bovine CD 18 gene and the refinement of test for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. J. Dairy. Sci. 80(10):2547-2549.

Kroneman, J., G. J. W. Van de Mey and A. Helder. 1975. Hereditary zinc deficiency in Dutch Frisian cattle. Zentrabl. Veterinaermed. Reihe A. 22:201-208.

Lachance, P. A. 1998. International perspective: Basis need and application of RDA. Nutr. Rev. 56(4):S2-S4.

Lee, S. H.., S. C. Choi, B. J. Chae, S. P. Acda and Y. K. Han. 2001a. Effects of feeding different chelated copper and zinc sources on growth performance and fecal excretion of weaning pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1616-1620.

Lee, S. H., S. C. Choi, B. J. Chae, J. K. Lee and S. P. Acda. 2001b. Evaluation of metal amino acid chelates and complexes at various levels of copper and zinc in weanling pigs and broilers chicks. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1734-1740.

Lim, H. S. and I. K. Paik. 2003. Effects of supplementing minerals methionine chelates (Zn, Cu, Mn) on the performance and eggshell quality of laying hens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1804-1808.

Mavromichalis, I., C. M. Peter, T. M. Parr, D. Ganessunker and D. H. Baker. 2000: Growth promoting efficacy in young pigs of two sources of zinc oxide having either a high or a low bioavailability of zinc. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2896-2902.

Mavromichalis, I., D. M. Webel, E. N. Parr and D. H. Baker. 2001. Growth promoting efficacy of pharmacological doses of tetrabasic zinc chloride in diets for nursery pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 81:367-391.

Mc Cance, R. A. and E. M. Widdowson. 1942. The absorption and excretion of zinc. Biochem. J. 36:692-696.

Mignotte, B. and J. Vayssier. 1998. Mitochondria and apoptosis. Eur. J. Biochem. 252:1-15.

Milne, D. B., N. V. Ralston and J. C. Wallwork. 1985. Zinc content of blood cellular components and lymphnode and spleen lymphocytes in severely zinc deficient rats. J. Nutr. 115:1073-1078.

Moochegiani, E., L. Santareilli, M. Muzzioli and N. Fabris. 1995. Reversibility of the thymic involution and of age related peripheral immune dysfunction by zinc supplementation in old mice. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 17:703-718.

Murthy, A. R. K., R. I. Lehrer, S. S. L. Harwig and K. T. Miyasaki. 1993. Invitro candidastatic properties of the human neutrophil calprotectin complex. J. Immunol. 151:6291-6301.

Naresh, R., S. K. Dwivedi, S. Dey and D. Swarup. 2001. Zinc, Copper and cobalt concentration in blood during inflammation of the mammary gland in dairy cow. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:564-566.

National Research Council. 1981. Nutrient requirements of Goats; Angora, Dairy and Meat goats in temperate and tropical countries. 5th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

National Research Council. 1985. Nutrient requirements of sheep. 6th Ed. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.

National research Council. 1989a. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th Ed. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.

National research Council. 1989b. Nutrient Requirements of dairy cattle. 6th Ed. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.

National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of dairy cattle. 7th revised Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

O’Quinn, P. R., J. R. Bergstorm, J. L. Nelssen, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz and R. D. Goodband. 1997. The interactive effects between diet complexity, zinc oxide and feed grade antibiotics on performance of segregated early weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 75 (Suppl):192 (Abstr.).

Origino, C. and G. Yang. 1978. Requirement of rainbow trout for dietary zinc. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish 44:1015-1018.

Park, J. H., C. J. Grandjean, D. L. Antoson and J. A. Vander hoof. 1986. Effects of isolated zinc deficiency on the composition of skeletal muscles, liver and bone during growth in rats. J. Nutr. 116:610-617.