Aalhus, J. L., S. D. M. Jones, A. L. Schaefer, A. K. W. Tong, W. M. Robertson, J. K. Merrill and A. C. Murray. 1990. The effects of ractopamine on performance, carcass composition and meat quality of finishing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 70:943-952.
Baker, D. H., J. D. Hahn, T. K. Chung and Y. Han. 1993. Nutrition and growth: the concept and application of an ideal protein for swine growth. In: Growth of the Pig (Ed. G. R. Hollis). CAB International, Oxon, UK, pp. 133-140.
Bechtel, P. J., R. A. Easter, F. K. McKeith, J. Novakofski, D. G. McLaren and G. L. Grebner. 1988. Growth, carcass and sensory characteristics for pigs injected daily with natural porcine somatotropin. In: Proceedings of the 34th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Brisbane, pp. 603-604.
Beerman, D. H., R. D. Boyd, G. Armbruster, A. F. DeNeergard, K. Roneker, T. D. Bartley and K. D. Fagin. 1988. Does response effects of native and recombinant porcine somatotropin (pST) on growth performance, composition of gain and pork quality. In: Proceedings of the 34th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Brisbane, pp. 601-602.
Boisen, S. 2003. Ideal dietary amino acid profiles for pigs. In: Amino Acids in Animal Nutrition (Ed. J. P. F. D’Mello). CAB International, Oxon, UK, pp. 157-169.
Boleman, S. L., S. J. Boleman, T. D. Bidner, L. L. Southern, T. L. Ward, J. E. Pontif and M. M. Pike. 1995. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth, body composition and tissue accretion in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2033-2042.
Chang, W. K. and S. K. Chung. 1985. Studies for improving swine feeding programs. Effects of L-lysine supplementation to grower feed. Annual Research Reports of National Livestock Research Institute, Republic of Korea, pp. 286-294.
Chung, C. Y., I. B. Chung, D. J. Kwon, S. K. Chung, H. J. Yoon and K. S. Kim. 1981. Experiments on swine production. Effects of plane of nutrition and market weight on pork quality. Annual Research Reports of National Livestock Research Institute, Republic of Korea, pp. 436-476.
Chung, S. K., W. K. Chang and I. B. Chung. 1988. Studies for improving swine feeding programs. Effects of the stage of limited feeding on growth and pork quality in finishing pigs. Annual Research Reports of National Livestock Research Institute, Republic of Korea, pp. 246-250.
Cisneros, F., M. Ellis, F. K. McKeith, J. McCaw and R. L. Fernando. 1996. Influence of slaughter weight on growth and carcass characteristics, commercial cutting yields, and meat quality of barrows and gilts from two genotypes. J. Anim. Sci. 74:925-933.
Cline, T. R. and B. T. Richert. 2001. Feeding growing-finishing pigs. In: Swine Nutrition (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, pp. 717-724.
Coffey, M. T., R. W. Seerley, D. W. Funderburke and H. C. McCampbell. 1982. Effect of heat increment and level of dietary energy and environmental temperature on the performance of growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 54:95-105.
Crome, P. K., F. K. McKeith, T. R. Carr, D. J. Jones, D. H. Mowrey and J. E. Cannon. 1996. Effect of ractopamine on growth performance, carcass composition and cutting yields of pigs slaughtered at 107 and 125 kg. J. Anim. Sci. 74:709-716.
Cromwell, G. L., M. D. Lindemann, J. R. Randolph, H. J. Moneque and K. M. Parker. 1999. Efficacy of betaine as a carcass modifier in finishing pigs fed normal and reduced energy diets. J. Anim. Sci. 77(Suppl. 1):179 (Abstr.).
DARD. 2002. Increasing carcass weight. Pig Newsletter. Department of Agriculture and Rural Development. August, Hillsborough, Northern Ireland.
de Lange, C. F. M., S. H. Birkett and P. C. H. Morel. 2001. Protein, fat, and bone tissue growth in swine. In: Swine Nutrition (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, pp. 65-81.
de Wilde R. O. and H. Lauwers. 1984. The effect of parenteral use of estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and trenbolone on growth and carcass composition in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 59:1501-1509.
D’Souza, D. N. and B. P. Mullan. 2002. The effect of genotype, sex and management strategy on the eating quality of pork. Meat Sci. 60:95-101.
Dunshea, F. R., R. H. King, R. G. Campbell, R. D. Sainz and Y. S. Kim. 1993. Interrelationships between sex and ractopamine on protein and lipid deposition in rapidly growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:2919-2930.
FASS. 1999. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. 1st ed. Federation of Animal Sciences Societies, Savoy, IL.
Field, R. A. 1971. Effect of castration on meat quality and quantity. J. Anim. Sci. 32:849-858.
Fortin, A. 1980. The effect of slaughter weight on the carcass characteristics of Yorkshire barrows and gilts. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:265-274.
Friesen, K. G., J. L. Nelssen, J. A. Unruh, R. D. Goodband and M. D. Tokach. 1994. Effects of the interrelationship between genotype, sex and dietary lysine on growth performance and carcass composition in finishing pigs fed to either 104 or 127 kilograms. J. Anim. Sci. 72:946-954.
Galbraith, H. and J. H. Topps. 1981. Effect of hormones on the growth and body composition of animals. Nutr. Abst. Rev. Series B 51:521-540.
Garcia-Macias, J. A., M. Gispert, M. A. Oliver, A. Diestre, P. Alonso, A. Munoz-Luna, K. Siggens and D. Cuthbert-Heavens. 1996. The effects of cross, slaughter weight and halothane genotype on leanness and meat and fat quality in pig carcasses. Anim. Sci. 63:487-496.
Grandadam, J. A., J. P. Scheid, A. Jobard, H. Breux and J. M. Boisson. 1975. Results obtained with trenbolone acetate in conjunction with estradiol 17$\beta$ in veal calves, feedlot bulls, lambs and pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 41:969-977.
Gu, Y., A. P. Schinckel and T. G. Martin. 1992. Growth, development and carcass composition in five genotypes of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 70:1719-1729.
Hale, O. M., G. L. Newton and K. D. Haydon. 1986. Effect of diet and exercise on performance, carcass traits and plasma components of growing-finishing barrows. J. Anim. Sci. 62:665-671.
Han, I. K., J. H. Kim, K. S. Chu, Z. N. Xuan, K. S. Sohn and M. K. Kim. 1998. Effect of phase feeding on the growth performance and nutrient utilization in finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 11:559-565.
Heo, K., J. Odle, I. K. Han, W. Cho and S. Seo. 2000. Dietary Lcarnitine improves nitrogen utilization in growing pigs fed low energy, fat-containing diets. J. Nutr. 130:1809-1814.
Johnston, M. E., J. L. Nelssen, R. D. Goodband, D. H. Kropf, R. H. Hines and B. R. Schricker. 1993. The effects of porcine somatostatin and dietary lysine on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing swine fed to 105 or 127 kilograms. J. Anim. Sci. 71:2986-2995
Kim, Y. S., R. D. Sainz, R. J. Summers and P. Molenaar. 1992. Cimaterol reduces $\beta$-adrenergic receptor density in rat skeletal muscles. J. Anim. Sci. 70:115-122.
Kim, Y. S., T. H. Lee and Y. J. Choi. 1995. Effects of intermittent and stepwise administration of a beta-adrenergic agonist, L644, 969, on rat growth performance and skeletal muscles. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 110C:127-132.
Latorre, M. A., R. Lazaro, D. G. Valencia, P. Medel and G. G. Mateos. 2004. The effects of gender and slaughter weight on the growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of heavy pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 82:526-533.
Leach, L. M., M. Ellis, D. S. Sutton, F. K. McKeith and E. R. Wilson. 1996. The growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of halothane carrier and negative pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 74:934-943.
Lee, C. Y., H. P. Lee, J. H. Jeong, K. H. Baik, S. K. Jin, J. H. Lee and S. H. Sohn. 2002. Effects of restricted feeding, low-energy diet, and implantation of trenbolone acetate plus estradiol on growth, carcass traits, and circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein-3 in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:84-93.
Lee, C. Y., H. P. Lee, J. H. Lee and M. J. Park. 2000. Effects of a low-energy diet on growth and carcass quality of finishing barrows. J. Agric. Tech. Res. Inst. (Jinju Natl. Univ., Republic of Korea) 13:199-205.
Leymaster, K. A. and H. J. Mersmann. 1991. Effect of limited feed intake on growth of subcutaneous adipose tissue layers and on carcass composition in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 69:2837-2843.
Lindemann, M. D., C. M. Wood, A. F. Harper, E. T. Kornegay and R. A. Anderson. 1993. Dietary chromium picolinate additions improve gain:feed and carcass characteristics in growingfinishing pigs and increase litter size in reproducing sows. J. Anim. Sci. 73:457-465.
Martin, A. H., A. P. Sather, H. T. Fredeen and R. W. Jolly. 1980. Alternative market weights for swine. II. Carcass composition and meat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 50:699-705.
Matthews, J. O., L. L. Southern, A. D. Higbie, M. A. Persica and T. D. Bidner. 2001. Effects of betaine on growth, carcass characteristics, pork quality, and plasma metabolites of finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 79:722-728.
MLC. 2003. An Industry Guide to the Production of Heavier Pigs. Meat and Livestock Commission. Milton Keynes, UK.
Monin, G., C. Larzul, P. Le Roy, J. Culioli, J. Mourot, S. Rousset-Akrim, A. Talmant, C. Touraille and P. Sellier. 1999. Effects of the halothane genotype and slaughter weight on texture of pork. J. Anim. Sci. 77:408-415.
Mooney, K. W. and G. L. Cromwell. 1997. Efficacy of chromium picolinate and chromium chloride as potential carcass modifier in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2661-2671.
Mourot, J., M. Bonneau, P. Charlotin and L. Lefaucheur. 1992. Effects of exogenous porcine somatotropin (pST) administration on pork quality. Meat Sci. 31:219-227.
NASS. 2003. Agricultural Statistics. USDA. National Agricultural Statistics Service. US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Nieuwhof, G. J., E. Kanis, W. Van der Hel, M. W. A. Verstegen, J. Huisman and P. Van der Wal. 1991. Effect of recombinant porcine somatotropin on body composition and meat quality in growing pigs: interactions with genotype, sex and slaughter weight. Meat Sci. 30:265-278.
Noffsinger, T. L., F. N. Andrews and V. L. Anderson. 1959. The rate of fat deposition in four lines of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 18:127-133
NRC. 1994. Metabolic Modifiers. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Owen, K. Q., J. L. Nelssen, R. D. Goodband, M. D. Tokach and K. G. Friesen. 2001. Effect of dietary L-carnitine on growth performance and body composition in nursery and growingfinishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 79:1509-1515.
Owen, K. Q., J. L. Nelssen, R. D. Goodband, T. L. Weeden and S. A. Blum. 1996. Effect of dietary L-carnitine and soybean oil on growth performance and body composition of early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1612-1619.
Page, T. G., L. L. Southern, T. L. Ward and D. L. Thompson, Jr. 1993. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth and serum and carcass traits of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:656-662.
Page, T. G., L .L. Southern, T. L. Ward, J. E. Pontif, T. D. Bidner and D. L. Thompson, Jr. 1992b. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth, serum and carcass traits, and organ weights of growing-finishing pigs from different ancestral sources. J. Anim. Sci. 70 (Suppl. 1):235 (Abstr.).
Page, T. G., S. L. Boleman, M. M. Pike, T. L. Ward, S. J. Boleman, L. L. Southern, T. D. Bidner and J. E. Pontif. 1992a. Effect of chromium picolinate on carcass traits and aging on pork quality. J. Anim. Sci. 70 (Suppl. 1):218 (Abstr.).
Piao, J. R., J. Z. Tian, G. B. Kim, Y. I. Choi, Y. Y. Kim and I. K. Han. 2004. Effects of sex and market weight on performance, carcass characteristics and pork quality of market hogs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1452-1458.
Quijandria, B., Jr. and O. W. Robinson. 1971. Body weight and backfat deposition in swine: curves and correction factors. J. Anim. Sci. 33:911-918.
Sainz, R. D., Y. S. Kim, F. R. Dunshea and R. G. Campbell. 1993. Effects of ractopamine in pig muscles: histology, calpains and beta-adrenergic receptors. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 44:1441-1448.
Schinckel, A. P., B. T. Richert, C. T. Herr, M. E. Einstein and D. C. Kendall. 2001. Effects of ractopamine on swine growth, carcass composition and quality. Second International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality.
Shields, R. G., Jr., D. C. Mahan and P. L. Graham. 1983. Changes in swine body composition from birth to 145 kg. J. Anim. Sci. 57:43-54.
Siljander-Rasi, H., S. Peuranen, K. Tiihonen, E. Viranen, J. Kettunen, T. Alaviuhkola and P. H. Simmins. 2003. Effect of equi-molar dietary betaine and choline addition on performance, carcass quality and physiological parameters of pigs. Anim. Sci. 76:55-62.
Stites, C. R., F. K. McKeith, S. D. Singh, P. J. Bechtel, D. J. Jones and D. H. Mowrey. 1994. Palatability and visual characteristics of hams and loin chops from swine treated with ractopamine hydrochloride. J. Muscle Foods 5:367-376.
Tess, M. W., G. E. Dickerson, J. A. Nienaber and C. L. Ferrell. 1986. Growth, development and body composition in three genetic stocks of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 62:968-979.
Thornton, R. F. and W. R. Shorthose. 1989. Growth promotants, repartitoning agents and pig meat quality. In: Manipulating Pig Production II (Ed. J. L. Barnett and D. P. Hennessy). Australian Pig Science Association.
Unruh, J. A., K. G. Friesen, S. R. Stuewe, B. L. Dunn, J. L. Nelssen, R. D. Goodband and M. D. Tokach. 1996. The influence of genotype, sex and dietary lysine on pork subprimal cut yields and carcass quality of pigs fed to either 104 or 127 kilograms. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1274-1283.
Uttaro, B. E., R. O. Ball, P. Dick, W. Rae, G. Vessie and L. E. Jeremiah. 1993. Effect of ractopamine and sex on growth, carcass characteristics, processing yield and meat quality characteristics of crossbred swine. J. Anim. Sci. 71:2439-2449.
van Heugten, E. and J. W. Spears. 1997. Immune response and growth of stressed weanling pigs fed diets supplemented with organic or inorganic forms of chromium. J. Anim. Sci. 75:409-416.
van Weerden, E. J. and J. A. Grandadam. 1976. The effect of an anabolic agent on N deposition, growth, and slaughter quality in growing castrated male pigs. In: Anabolic Agents in Animal Production (Ed. F. C. Lu and J. Rendel). Environmental Quality and Safety (Suppl. V):115-122.
Virgili, R., M. Degni, C. Schivazappa, V. Faeti, E. Ploetti, G. Marchetto, M. T. Pacchioli and A. Mordenti. 2003. Effects of age at slaughter on carcass traits and meat quality of Italian heavy pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2448-2456.