Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Quantification of Pre-parturition Restlessness in Crated Sows Using Ultrasonic Measurement
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Quantification of Pre-parturition Restlessness in Crated Sows Using Ultrasonic Measurement
Wang, J.S.; Huang, Y.S.; Wu, M.C.; Lai, Y.Y.; Chang, H.L.; Young, M.S.;
  PDF(new window)
This study presents a non-video, non-invasive, automatic, on-site monitoring system the system employs ultrasonic transducers to detect behavior in sows before, during and after parturition. An ultrasonic transmitting/receiving (T/R) circuit of 40 kHz was mounted above a conventional parturition bed. The T/R units use ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) ranging technology to measure the height of the confined sows at eight predetermined locations. From this data, three momentary postures of the sow are determined, characterized as standing-posture (SP), lateral-lying-posture (LLP) and sitting posture (STP). By examining the frequencies of position switch Stand-Up-Sequence (SUS) between standing-posture (SP), lateral-lying-posture (LLP) and sitting-posture (STP) rate can be determined for the duration of the sow' confinement. Three experimental pureblooded Landrace sows undergoing normal gestation were monitored for the duration of confinement. In agreement with common observation, the sows exhibited increased restlessness as parturition approached. Analysis of the data collected in our study showed a distinct peak in Stand-Up-Sequence (SUS, i.e. the transition from lying laterally to standing up ) and sitting-posture (STP) rate approximately 12 h prior to parturition, the observed peak being 5 to 10 times higher than observed on any other measurement day. It is concluded that the presented methodology is a robust, low-cost, lowlabor method for the continuous remote monitoring of sows and similar large animals for parturition and other behavior. It is suggested that the system could be applied to automatic prediction of sow parturition, with automatic notification of remote management personnel so human attendance at birth could reduce rates of sow and piglet mortality. The results of this study provide a good basis for enhancing automation and reducing costs in large-scale sow husbandry and have applications in the testing of various large mammals for the effects of medications, diets, genetic modifications and environmental factors.
Sows;Parturition;Ultrasonic Transducers;Animal Husbandry;
 Cited by
Predicting Parturition Time through Ultrasonic Measurement of Posture Changing Rate in Crated Landrace Sows,;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2007. vol.20. 5, pp.682-692 crossref(new window)
Randall, G. C. B. 1972. Observations on parturition in the sow. I. Factors associated with the delivery of the piglets and their subsequent behavior. Vet. Rec. 90:178.

Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V. N. A., P. C. Struijk, F. Eijkoot, F. K. Lotgering, F. M. F. van Dissel-Emiliani, G. C. van der Weyden and M. A. M. Taverne. 2002. Ultrasonic cervimetry to study the dilatation of the caudal cervix of the cow at parturition. Theriogenology 57:1989-2002.

Singh, N. S., P. G. Gawande, O. P Mishra, R. K. Nema, U. K. Mishra and Mohan Singh. 2004. Accuracy of Ultrasonography in Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Doe. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(6):760-768.

Nagaoka, K., H. Yamaguchi, H. Aida, K. Yoshioka, M. Takahashi, R. K. Christenson, K. Imakawa and S. Sskai. 2000. Implantation in Ruminants: Changes in Pre-Implantation, Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy, Control of Attachment and Invasion. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 12(6):845-855.

Ryu, Y-H., J.-Y. Yang, D.-S. Seo and Y. Ko. 2003. Effect of Serum IGF-I on Progesterone Concentration during Early Pregnancy in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo). Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(1):176-179.

Khan, J. R. and R. S. Ludri. 2002. Changes in Maternal Blood Glucose and Plasma Non-Esterified Fatty Acid during Pregnancy and around Parturition in Twin and Single Fetus Bearing Crossbred Goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(4):504-508.

Ramirez, A., A. Quiles and M. Sotillo. 1995. Behavior of the Murciano-Granadina goat in the hour before parturition. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 44:29-35.

Gilbert, C. L., A. B. Lawrence, M. L. Forsling, J. A. Goode, T. J. McGrath, K. A. McLean and J. C. Petherick. 1996. Maternal plasma vasopressin, oxytocin and cortisol concentrations following foetal ejection in the pig. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 43:137-150.

Gilbert, C. L., M. I. Boulton, J. A. Goode and T. J. McGrath. 2000. The timing of parturition in the pig is altered by intravenous naloxone. Theriogenology 53:905-923.

Knight, T. W., A. F. Death and T. K. Wyeth. 1995. Photoperiodic control of the time of parturition in alpacas (Lama pacos). Anim. Reprod. Sci. 39:259-265.

Pinheiro Machado, F. L., C. J. F. Hurnik and G. J. King. 1997. Timing of the attraction towards the placenta and amniotic fluid by the parturient cow. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 53:183-192.

Wechsler, B. and D. Hegglin. 1997. Individual differences in behaviour of sows at the nest-site and the crushing of piglets. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 51:39-49.

Pedersen, L. J., M. Studnitz, K. H. Jensen and A. M. Giersing. 1998. Suckling behaviour of piglets in relation to accessibility to the sow and presence foreign litters. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 58:267-279.

Young, M. S., C. W. Young and Y. C. Li. 2000. A combined system for measuring motion activities. J. Neuroscience Methods 95:55-63.

Liu, T. J. and M. S. Young. 2002. Eliminating contaminant with a piezoelectric transducer in the design of low-cost smart kitchen range hoods. J. IEEE Sensor. 2:314-321.

Carullo, A. and M. Parvis. 2001. An ultrasonic sensor for distance measurement in automotive applications. J. IEEE Sensors. 1:143-147.

Huang, C. F. and M. S. Young. 1999. Multiple-frequency continuous wave ultrasonic system for accurate distance measurement. Rev. Sci. Instru. 70:1452-1458. crossref(new window)