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Mitigation of Methane Emission and Energy Recycling in Animal Agricultural Systems
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Mitigation of Methane Emission and Energy Recycling in Animal Agricultural Systems
Takahashi, J.; Mwenya, B.; Santoso, B.; Sar, C.; Umetsu, K.; Kishimoto, T.; Nishizaki, K.; Kimura, K.; Hamamoto, O.;
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Abatement of greenhouse gas emitted from ruminants and promotion of biogas energy from animal effluent were comprehensively examined in each anaerobic fermentation reactor and animal experiments. Moreover, the energy conversion efficiency of biomass energy to power generation were evaluated with a gas engine generator or proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). To mitigate safely rumen methanogenesis with nutritional manipulation the suppressing effects of some strains of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, bacteriocin, 1-4 galactooligosaccharide, plant extracts (Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponarea), L-cysteine and/or nitrate on rumen methane emission were compared with antibiotics. For in vitro trials, cumulative methane production was evaluated using the continuous fermented gas qualification system inoculated with the strained rumen fluid from rumen fistulated Holstein cows. For in vivo, four sequential ventilated head cages equipped with a fully automated gas analyzing system were used to examine the manipulating effects of 1-4 galactooligosaccharide, lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides), yeast (Trichosporon serticeum), nisin and Yucca schidigera and/or nitrate on rumen methanogenesis. Furthermore, biogas energy recycled from animal effluent was evaluated with anaerobic bioreactors. Utilization of recycled energy as fuel for a co-generator and fuel cell was tested in the thermophilic biogas plant system. From the results of in vitro and in vivo trials, nitrate was shown to be a strong methane suppressor, although nitrate per se is hazardous. L-cysteine could remove this risk. 1-4 galactooligosaccharide, Candida kefyr, nisin, Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponarea are thought to possibly control methanogenesis in the rumen. It is possible to simulate the available energy recycled through animal effluent from feed energy resources by making total energy balance sheets of the process from feed energy to recycled energy.
Methane;Yucca schidigera;Quillaja saponarea;Oligosaccharide;Fuel Cell;Biogas Plant;
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