JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Change in Nitrogen Fractions and Ruminal Nitrogen Degradability of Orchardgrass Ensiled at Various Moisture Contents and the Subsequent Effects on Nitrogen Utilization by Sheep
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Change in Nitrogen Fractions and Ruminal Nitrogen Degradability of Orchardgrass Ensiled at Various Moisture Contents and the Subsequent Effects on Nitrogen Utilization by Sheep
Nguyen, H.V.; Kawai, M.; Takahashi, J.; Matsuoka, S.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The effect of various moisture contents of fresh forage on the change in nitrogen (N) fractions, in vitro ruminal N degradability, and the subsequent N utilization of silage in sheep were evaluated. Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) with high (HM, 76%), medium (MM, 65%) and low (LM, 40%) moisture contents were ensiled into silos of 120 L capacity for 120 days. A nitrogen balance trial was conducted using a 44 Latin square design consisting of four dietary treatments (i.e. fresh forage, HM, MM and LM silages) and four wethers. With respect to N fractions, fraction 1 (buffer solution soluble N), fraction 2 (buffer solution insoluble N-neutral detergent insoluble N), fraction 3 (neutral detergent insoluble N-acid detergent insoluble N), and fraction 4 (acid detergent insoluble N) were determined. The proportion of fraction 1 in silages tended to decrease, while the in vitro ruminal degradability of insoluble N increased (p<0.05) with lower moisture contents at ensiling. Consequently, nitrogen utilization in sheep tended to improve as the moisture content of ensiled grass was decreased, with a negative correlation (p<0.01) between urinary N and the in vitro ruminal degradability of insoluble N. The averaged N retentions for HM, MM, and LM silage treatments were 59, 73 and 79% of that for fresh forage, respectively.
 Keywords
Orchardgrass;Moisture Contents;Ensiling;Nitrogen Fractions;Ruminal Degradability;Nitrogen Utilization;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Barker, S. B. and W. H. Summerson. 1961. The colorimetric determination of lactic acid in biological material. J. Biol. Chem. 138:535-554.

2.
Chamberlain, A. T. and J. M. Wilkinson. 1996. Feeding the dairy cow. Chalcombe Publication. UK.

3.
Coblentz, W. K., I. E. O. Abdelgarir, R. C. Cochran, J. O. Fritz, W. H. Fick, K. C. Olson and J. E. Turner. 1999. Degradability of forage protein by in situ and in vitro enzymatic methods. J. Dairy Sci. 82:343-354.

4.
Conway, E. J. and E. O’Malley. 1942. Microdiffusion methods: ammonia and urea using buffered absorbents (revised methods for ranges greater than 10 g N). Biochem. J. 36:655-661.

5.
Ensminger, M. E., J. E. Oldfield and W. W. Heinemann. 1990. Feeds and Nutrition. The Ensminger Publishing Company, California, USA.

6.
Gordon, F. J., D. C. Patterson, M. C. Porter and E. F. Unsworth. 2000. The effect of degree of grass wilting prior to ensiling on performance and energy utilization by lactating dairy cattle. Livestock Production Science 64:291-294.

7.
Henderson, A. R., P. McDonald and D. H. Anderson. 1982. The effect of silage additives containing formaldehyde on the fermentation of ryegrass ensiled at different dry matter levels and on the nutritive value of direct cut silage. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 7:303-314.

8.
Heragty, M. P. and P. J. Peterson. 1973. Free amino acids, bound amino acids and ureides. In: Chemistry and Biochemistry of Herbage Vol. 1. (Ed. G. W. Butler and R. W. Bailey). Academic Press, London. pp. 1-62.

9.
Horrocks, R. D and J. F. Vallentine. 1999. Harvested forages. Academic Press, California. USA.

10.
Janicki, F. J. and C. C. Stallings. 1988. Degradation of crude protein in forages determined by in vitro and in situ procedures. J. Dairy Sci. 71:2440-2448.

11.
Krishanamoorthy, U., T. V. Muscato, C. J. Sniften and P. J. Van Soest. 1982. Nitrogen fractions in selected feedstuffs. J. Dairy Sci. 65:217-225.

12.
Licitra, G., T. M. Hernandez and P. J. Van Soest. 1996. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 57:347-358.

13.
Marsh, R. 1979. The effects of wilting on fermentation in the silo and on the nutritive value of silage. Grass Forage Sci. 34:1-10.

14.
Masaki, S. 1971. Determination of water soluble carbohydrates in forage. In: Experimental methods in Animal Nutrition 1st Ed. (Ed. H. Morimoto). Yokendo, Tokyo. pp. 422-424 (in Japanese).

15.
McDonald, P. 1976. Silage. In: Microbiology in Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. (Ed. F. A. Skinner and J. G. Carr). Society of Applied Biology Symposium Series 4, Academic Press, p. 109.

16.
McDonald, P., A. R. Henderson and S. J. E. Heron. 1991. The Biochemistry of Silage. 2sd Ed. Chalcombe publications, UK.

17.
Merchen, N. R. and L. D. Satter. 1983. Changes in nitrogenous compounds and sites of digestion of alfalfa harvested at different moisture contents. J. Dairy Sci. 66:789-801.

18.
Nguyen, H. V., M. Kawai, J. Takahashi and S. Matsuoka. 2004a. Change in nitrogen fractions and rumen degradability of orchardgrass and alfalfa during the ensiling process and the subsequent effects on nitrogen utilisation by sheep. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(11):1524-1528.

19.
Nguyen, H. V., M. Kawai, J. Takahashi and S. Matsuoka. 2004b. Influence of delay prior to ensiling on the nutritive quality of protein in orchardgrass silage. Proceedings of the 11th Asian-Australian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) Congress, 3:370-372.

20.
Nguyen, H. V., A. Ishii, M. Kawai, J. Takahashi and S. Matsuoka. 2003. The influence of conservation methods on protein fractions, in vitro ruminal protein degradability and nitrogen utilization of grass forage. In Proceedings of the 101st Japanese Society of Animal Science (JSAS) Congress, Tsukuba, p. 93. (in Japanese).

21.
Oshima, M. and P. McDonald. 1978. A review of the changes in nitrogenous compounds of herbage during ensilage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 29:497-505.

22.
Sniffen, C. J., D. O. O’Connor, P. J. Van Soest, D. G. Fox and J. B. Russell. 1992. A Net Carbohydrate and Protein System for Evaluating Cattle Diets: II. Carbohydrate and Protein Availability. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3562-3577.

23.
Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 1997. SAS/STAT$^{\circledR}$ Software: Changes and Enhancements through Release 6.12, Cary NC, USA.

24.
Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.

25.
Woolford, M. K. 1984. The silage fermentation. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

26.
Yahaya, M. S., M. Kawai, J. Takahashi and S. Matsuoka. 2002. The effects of different moisture content and ensiling time on silo degradation of structural carbohydrates of orchardgrass. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(2):213-217.