Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Nutrition Practice to Alleviate the Adverse Effects of Stress on Laying Performance, Metabolic Profile, and Egg Quality in Peak Producing Hens: I. The Humate Supplementation
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Nutrition Practice to Alleviate the Adverse Effects of Stress on Laying Performance, Metabolic Profile, and Egg Quality in Peak Producing Hens: I. The Humate Supplementation
Hayirli, Armagan; Esenbuga, N.; Macit, M.; Lacin, E.; Karaoglu, M.; Karaca, H.; Yildiz, L.;
  PDF(new window)
This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cage density (CD) and humate supplementation (HS) on laying performance, metabolic profile, and egg quality during the peak production period in hens. Lohman layers (n = 180, 46 wks of age) were blocked according to the location of cages and then allocated randomly to two levels of CD (4 or 6 hens per cage or 540 vs. 360 /hen) and three levels of HS (0, 0.15, and 0.30%). Egg production (EP) and feed consumption (FC) were measured daily; egg weight was measured bi-weekly; and BW was measured before and after the experiment. Blood and additional egg samples were obtained at the end of the experiment for determination of metabolic profile and egg quality. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA as repeated measures. Except for FC, CD did not affect laying performance parameters. Hens placed in high-density cages had lower FC than hens placed in normal-density cages. Increasing HS level linearly increased FC, EP, and feed conversion ratio (FCR). There was a CD by HS interaction effect on FC and EP. Hens placed in high-density cages had greater serum glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, Ca, and P concentrations and tended to have greater serum corticosterone concentration than hens placed in normaldensity cages. Increasing HS level linearly increased serum glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, creatine, and Ca concentrations and linearly decreased serum triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein concentrations. There was a CD by HS interaction effect on serum glucose and albumin concentrations. There were no alterations in egg quality parameters in response to increasing CD. Albumen index and Haugh unit decreased linearly and other egg quality parameters did not change as HS level increased. In conclusion, increased caging density adversely affected metabolic profile, despite insignificantly deteriorating laying performance. Moreover, benefits from humate supplementation seem to be more noteworthy for hens housed in stressing conditions than for hens housed in standard conditions.
Cage Density;Humate;Laying Performance;Metabolic Profile;Egg Quality;Peak-producing Hens;
 Cited by
Physiological Profile of Growing Rats: Effects of Cage Type and Cage Density,;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2007. vol.20. 2, pp.263-272 crossref(new window)
Addition of a Worm Leachate as Source of Humic Substances in the Drinking Water of Broiler Chickens,;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2015. vol.28. 2, pp.215-222 crossref(new window)
Effects of Dietary Corticosterone on Yolk Colors and Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens,;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2015. vol.28. 6, pp.840-846 crossref(new window)
Effects of boric acid and humate supplementation on performance and egg quality parameters of laying hens, Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola, 2012, 14, 4, 283  crossref(new windwow)
on productive performance and blood parameters of laying hens, The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 2015, 25, 2, 145  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of Dietary Corticosterone on Yolk Colors and Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2015, 28, 6, 840  crossref(new windwow)
Altan, A., S. Ozkan, K. Ozkan, Y. Akbas and V. Ayhan. 2002. Effects of cage density on the performance of laying hens during high summer temperatures. Turk J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 26:695-700.

Anderson, K. E., G. S. Davis, P. K. Jenkins and A. S. Carroll. 2004. Effects of bird age, density, and molt on behavioral profiles of two commercial layer strains in cages. Poult. Sci. 83:15-23.

AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th end. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Arlington, Virginia.

Badaev, S. A., T. Gichner, F. Pospisil and J. Veleminisky. 1989. Humic acids inhibit the formation but not the mutagenicity of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Mutat. Res. 210:9-13.

Barnett, J. L. and P. H. Hemsworth. 2003. Science and its application in assessing the welfare of laying hens in the egg quality. Aust. Vet. J. 81:615-624.

Bell, A. E., W. M. Muir and D. W. Olson. 1983. Performance of dwarf and normal laying hens as influenced by protein and cage density. Poult. Sci. 62:2130-2137.

Bishop, R. J. 2004. Cage density effects on production and welfare of layers. A report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Dept. Agric. West. Australia.

Brake, J. D. and E. D. Peebles. 1992. Laying hen performance as affected by diet and caging density. Poult. Sci. 71:945-950.

Beuving, G. and G. Vonder. 1977. Daily rhythm of corticosterone in laying hens and the influence on egg laying. J. Reprod. Fertil. 51:169-173.

Carey, J. B. and F. L. Kuo. 1995. Effects of cage population on the productive performance of layer. Poult. Sci. 74:633-637.

Carey, J. B., F. L. Kuo and K. E. Anderson. 1995. Effects of cage population on the productive performance of layers. Poult. Sci. 74:633-637.

Carmichael, N. L., A. W. Walker and B. O. Hughes. 1999. Laying hens in large flocks in a perchery system: influence of stocking density on location, use of resources and behaviour. Br. Poult. Sci. 40:165-176.

Craig, J. V. and G. A. Milliken. 1989. Further studies of density and group size effects in caged hens of stocks differing in fearful behavior, productivity and behavior. Poult. Sci. 68:9-16.

Craig, J. V., J. A. Craig and J. Vargas. 1986. Corticosteroids and other indicators of hens’ well-being in four laying environments. Poult. Sci. 65:856-863.

Culbert, J. and J. W. Wells. 1975. Aspects of the adrenal function in the domestic fowl. J. Endocrinol. 65:363-376.

Cunningham, D. L. 1988. Effects of population size and cage area on agonistic activity and social structure of White Leghorn layers. Poult. Sci. 67:198-204. crossref(new window)

Cunningham, D. L. and G. Gvaryahu. 1987. Effects on productivity and aggressive behavior of laying hens of solid versus wire cage partitions and bird density. Poult. Sci. 66:1583-1586

Cunningham, D. L. and C. E. Ostrander. 1981. An evaluation of layer performance in deep and shallow cages at different densities. Poult. Sci. 60:2010-2016.

Cunningham, D. L., A. van Tienhoven and G. Gvaryahu. 1988. Population size, cage area, and dominance rank effects on productivity and well-being of laying hens. Poult. Sci. 67:399-406.

Dafwang, I. I., M. E. Cook and M. L. Sunde. 1987. Interaction of dietary antibiotic supplementation and stocking density on broiler chick performance and immune response. Br. Poult. Sci. 28:47-55.

Dawkins, M. S., C. A. Donnelly and T. A. Jones. 2004. Chicken welfare is influenced more by housing conditions than by stocking density. Nature 427:342-344.

Davami, A., M. J. Wineland, W. T. Jones and R. L. Ilardi. 1987. Effects of population size, floor space, and feeder space upon performance, external appearance, and plasma corticosterone concentration of laying hens. Poult. Sci. 66:251-257.

Davis, G. S. and K. E. Anderson. 2002. The effects of feeding the direct-fed microbial, primalac, on growth parameters and egg production in single comb white leghorn hens. Poult. Sci. 81:755-759.

Davis, G. S., K. E. Anderson and A. S. Carroll. 2000. The effects of long-term caging and molt of Single Comb White Leghorn hens on heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, corticosterone and thyroid hormones. Poult. Sci. 79:514-518.

El-Lethey, H., B. Huber-Eicher and T. W. Jungi. 2003. Exploration of stress-induced immunosuppression in chickens reveals both stress-resistant and stress-susceptible antigen responses. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 95:91-101.

Eren, M., G. Deniz, S. S. Gezen and I. I. Türkmen. 2000. Broyler yemlerine katılan humatların besi performansı, serum mineral konsantrasyonu ve kemik kulu uzerine etkileri. Ankara Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg. 47:255-263.

Ergun, A., S. Yalcin, I. Colpan, T. Dikicioglu and S. Yildiz. 1987. Utilization of vetch by laying hens. J. Fac. Vet. Med. Univ. Ankara 34:449-466.

Griban, V. G., V. A. Baranahenko, S. S. Kasyan and S. V. Verlos. 1991. Use of hydrohumate (sodium salt of humic acid) for enhancing the natural resistance of cows with subclinical nutritional disorders. Vet. Moskova. 12:54-56.

Gross, W. B. and H. S. Siegel. 1983. Evaluation of the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens. Avian Dis. 27:972-929.

Harvey, S., C. G. Scanes and K. I. Brown. 1986. Adrenals. In Avian Physiology (Ed. P. D. Sturkie). Springer-Verlag Inc., New York., pp. 479-493.

Havenstein, G. B., V. D. Toelle, R. H. Towner and A. Emsley. 1989. Effects of genetic strain, slow versus rapid-feathering maternal genotype, and cage density on the performance of Single Comb White Leghorns. Poult. Sci. 68:596-607.

Heckert, R. A., I. Estevez, E. Russek-Cohen and R. Petit-Riley. 2002. Effects of density and perch availability on the immune status of broilers. Poult. Sci. 81:451-457.

Herzig, I., J. Hampl, H. Docekalova, B. Pisarikova and J. V. Vleck. 1994. The effect of sodium huminate on cadmium deposition in the organs of chickens. Veterinarni Medicina. 39:175-185.

Hester, P. Y. and E. K. Wilson. 1986. Performance of White Leghorn hens in response to cage density and the introduction of cage mates. Poult. Sci. 65:2029-2033.

Hughes, B. O. 1975. The concept of an optimum stocking density and its selection for egg production. In Economic factors affecting egg production (Ed. B. M. Freeman and K. N. Boorman). British Poultry Science Ltd., Edinburgh. pp. 271-298.

Jensen, L. S., C. H. Chang and D. V. Maurice. 1976. Liver lipid accumulation and performance of hens as affected by cage density and initial body weight. Poult. Sci. 55:1926-1932.

Joone, G. K. and C. E. van Rensburg. 2004. An in vitro investigation of the anti-inflammatory properties of potassium humate. Inflammation. 28:169-174.

Joone, G. K., J. Dekker and C. E. van Rensburg. 2003. Investigation of the immunostimulatory properties of oxihumate. Z. Naturforsch. 58:263-267.

Kocabagli, N., M. Alp, N. Acar and R. Kahraman. 2002. The effects of dietary humate supplementation on broiler growth and carcass yield. Poult. Sci. 81:227-230.

Koelkebeck, K. W. and J. R. Cain. 1984. Performance, behavior, plasma corticosterone, and economic returns of laying hens in several management alternatives. Poult. Sci. 63:2123-2131.

Kuhnert, V. M., V. Fuchs and S. Golbs. 1989. Pharmakologishtoxikologische eigenshaften huminsauren and ihre wirkungsprofile fur eine veterinarmedizinische therapie. Deutsche Tieraürztl. Wschr. 96:3-10.

Kuhnert, V. M., K. P. Bartels, S. Kroll and N. Lange. 1991. Huminsaurehaltige tierarzneimittel in therapie and prophylaxe bei gastrointestinalen erkrankungen von hund und katze. Monatshefte Vet. 46:4-8.

Lee, K. and C. W. Moss. 1995a. Effects of population density on layer performance. Poult. Sci. 74:1754-1760.

Lee, K. and C. W. Moss. 1995b. Effects of cage density on fearrelated behavioral response and activity of layers. Poult. Sci. 74:1426-1430.

Lim, H. S. and I. K. Paik. 2003. Effects of supplementary mineral methionine chelates (Zn, Cu, Mn) on the performance and eggshell quality of laying hens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1804-1808.

Mashaly, M. M., M. L. Webb, S. L. Youtz, W. B. Roush and H. B. Graves. 1984. Changes in serum corticosterone concentration of laying hens as a response to increased population density. Poult. Sci. 63:2271-2274.

Mather, F. B. and E. W. Gleaves. 1970. Performance of commercial stocks of layers as influenced by cage density. Poult. Sci. 49:1412-1416.

Meluzzi, A., G. Primiceri, R. Giordani and G. Fabris. 1992. Determination of blood constituent reference values in broilers. Poult. Sci. 71:337-345.

Mench, J. A., A. Van Tienhoven, J. A. Marsh, C. C. McCormik, D. L. Cunningham and R. C. Baker. 1986. Effects of cage and floor pen management on behavior, production, physiological stress responses of laying hens. Poult. Sci. 65:1058-1069.

Miao, Z. H., P. C. Glatz and Y. J. Ru. 2005. Free-range poultry production: a review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:113-132.

Moinard, C., J. P. Morisse and J. M. Faure. 1998. Effect of cage area, cage height and perches on feather condition, bone breakage and mortality of laying hens. Br. Poult. Sci. 39:198-202.

Moran, Jr. E. T. 1986. Egg quality and hen performance responses to protein-calcium deficiency, cafeteria feeding, and cage density. Poult. Sci. 65:1153-1162.

National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Nicol, C. J. 1987. Effect of cage height and area on the behaviour of hens housed in battery cages. Br. Poult. Sci. 28:327-335. crossref(new window)

Odendaal, J. S. J. 1994. Veterinary ethology and animal welfare. Rev. Sci. Technol. Int. Epiz. 13:261-275.

Okpokho, N. A., J. V. Craig and G. A. Milliken. 1987. Density and group size effects on caged hens of two genetic stocks differing in escape and avoidance behavior. Poult. Sci. 66:1905-1910.

Onifade, A. A., A. A. Odunsi, G. M. Babatunde, B. R. Olorede and E. Muma. 1999. Comparison of the supplemental effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and antibiotics in low-protein and high-fiber diets fed to broiler chickens. Arch. Tierernahr. 52:29-39.

Parks, C., P. R. Ferket, L. N. Thomas and J. L. Grimes. 1986. Growth performance and immunity of turkeys fed high and low crude protein diets supplemented with Menefee humate. Poult. Sci. 75:138-143.

Pukhova, G. G., N. A. Druzhina, L. M. Stepchenko and E. E. Chebotarev. 1987. Effect of sodium humate on animals irradiated with lethal doses. Radiobiologiia. 27:650-653.

Ramos, N. C., K. E. Anderson and A. W. Adams. 1986. Effects of type of cage partition, cage shape, and bird density on productivity and well-being of layers. Poult. Sci. 65:2023-2028.

Robinson, D. 1979. Effects of cage shape, colony size, floor area, and cannibalism preventative measures on layer performance. Br. Poult. Sci. 20:345-356.

Roush, W. B., M. M. Mashaly and H. B. Graves. 1984. Effect of increased bird population in a fixed cage area on production and economic responses of single comb white leghorn laying hens. Poult. Sci. 63:45-48. crossref(new window)

Saleh, S. Y. and W. Jaksch. 1977. The effects of stress factors on blood leukocytic count, glucose and corticoids in chickens. Zbl. Vet. Med. A. 24:220-228.

SAS Institute Inc. 1998. SAS(R) User's Guide: Statistics, Version 7th. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, North Carolina.

Senn, T. L. and A. R. Kingman. 1973. A Review of Humus and Humic Acids. Research Series Report No: 145. South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, Clemson, South Carolina.

Shermer, C. L., K. G. Maciorowski, C. A. Bailey, F. M. Byers and S. Ricke. 1998. Caecal metabolites and microbial populations in chickens consuming diets containing amined humate compound. J. Sci. Food Agric. 77:479-486.

Silversides, F. G. and T. A. Scott. 2001. Effect of storage and layer age on quality of eggs from two lines of hens. Poult. Sci. 80:1240-1245.

Sohail, S. S., M. M. Bryant, S. K. Rao and D. A. Roland. 2001. Influence of cage density and prior dietary phosphorous requirement of commercial Leghorns. Poult. Sci. 80:769-775.

Stackhouse, R. A. and W. H. Benson. 1989. The effect of humic acid on the toxicity and bioavailability of trivalent chromium. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety. 17:105-111.

Stepchenko, L. M., L. V. Zhorina and L. V. Kravtsova. 1991. The effect of sodium humate on metabolism and resistance in highly productive poultry. Biol. Nauki. 10:90-95.

Tsukamoto, K., K. Machida, Y. Ina, T. Kuriyama, K. Suzuki, R. Murayama and C. Saiki. 1994. Effects of crowding on immune functions in mice. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi. 49:827-836.

Yoruk, M. A., M. Gul, A. Hayirli and M. Macit. 2004. The effects of supplementation of humate and probiotic on egg production and quality parameters during the late laying period in hens. Poult. Sci. 83:84-88.

Zhorina, L. V. and L. M. Stepchenko. 1991. The content of free amino acids in the tissues of broiler chicks administered sodium humate in the ration. Biol. Nauki. 10:147-150.