Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Feeding Complete Rations with Variable Protein and Energy Levels Prepared Using By-products of Pulses and Oilseeds on Carcass Characteristics, Meat and Meat Ball Quality of Goats
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of Feeding Complete Rations with Variable Protein and Energy Levels Prepared Using By-products of Pulses and Oilseeds on Carcass Characteristics, Meat and Meat Ball Quality of Goats
Agnihotri, M.K.; Rajkumar, V.; Dutta, T.K.;
  PDF(new window)
Thirty six pre-weaned Barbari kids at 4 months age were reared on four rations computed using coarse cereal grains and by-products of pulses and oil seeds with Crude Protein (CP) and Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) of 12 and 55% (Low protein Low energy); 12 and 60% (Low protein High energy); 14 and 55% (High protein Low energy); and 14 and 60% (High protein High energy), respectively. After 180 days on feed, male animals () were slaughtered to study the effect of diet on carcass characteristics and meat quality. To asses the effect, if any, of such diet on product quality, meat balls were prepared and evaluated for quality changes when fresh as well as during storage (). Feeding a ration with CP12 and TDN 60% (LH) to kids produced animals with highest slaughter weight (20.3 kg) yielding higher carcass weight and dressing percentage, lean (65.6%) and fat (6.6%) contents with low bone and trim losses. Although total variety meat yield was markedly higher in HL, the non-carcass fat deposition was relatively higher in LH carcasses. The water activity () of fresh goat meat ranged from 0.994-0.995 and total cholesterol 72.8-90.5 mg/100 g meat. The pH was high in HL and HH meat resulting in decreased () extract release volume (ERV). Meat balls were prepared using meat obtained from goats fed different rations (treatments) and stored at . They were evaluated on day 0 and months 1, 2, 3, 4 for physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic changes. Overall moisture (%), , TBA number and pH value were 67.9, 0.987, 0.17, 6.6 respectively and were not affected by treatments except pH that was significantly () lower on LH. As the storage period advanced moisture, pH, and TBA number increased irrespective of treatments. Feeding various diets had no marked effect on microbial load of meat balls but with increasing storage period Standard Plate Count (SPC) and psychrotrophs declined (). Treatment LL and LH produced meat balls with better flavour.
Goats;Complete Ration;Carcass Characteristics;Meat Balls and Quality;
 Cited by
Acharya, R. M. 1992. Goat genetics resources and their management. In (Ed. R. R. Lokeshwar), Research in goats Indian experience (pp. 15-16). Mathura, India: Central Institute for Research on Goats

Agnihotri, M. K. and U. K. Pal. 2000. Quality of chevon sausages in refrigerated storage. Int. J. Anim. Sci. 15:69-73

Agnihotri, M. K. 2002. Quality of patties prepared from young and spent goat meat. The Indian J. Small Rumin. 8:82-87

Agnihotri, M. K. and U. K. Pal. 1997. Effect of tetra sodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) on quality of chevon sausages. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 76:1000-1003

Agnihotri, M. K. and V. Rajkumar. 2001. Carcass traits of sheep and goats under various feeding/managemental regime. In The Proceedings of $IV^{th}$ National Seminar on Scope and Strategies for Increasing Meat Production from Small Ruminants and Rabbits in New Millennium (pp. 36-45). Coimbatore, India

AOAC. 1984. Official Methods of Analysis (pp. 431-443). 14th edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC

Bhuyan, R., K. K. Baruah and P. C. Das. 1996. Growth response and carcass characteristics of cross-bred kids fed rations having different concentrate to roughage ratios. Indian J. Anim. Nutri. 13:167-169

Craddock, B. F., R. A. Field and M. L. Riley. 1974. Effect of protein and energy levels on lamb carcass composition. J. Anim. Sci. 39:325-330

Crouse, J. D., R. A. Field, J. L. Chant and C. L. Ferrell. 1978. Effect of energy intake on carcass composition and palatability of different weight carcasses from ewe and ram lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 47:1207-1218

Dhanda, J. S., D. G. Taylor, J. E. McCosker and P. J. Murray. 1999a. The influence of goat geotype on the production of capretto and chevon carcasses. 1. Growth and carcass characteristics. Meat Sci. 52:355-361 crossref(new window)

Dhanda, J. S., D. G. Taylor, P. J. Murray and J. E. McCosker. 1999b. The influence of goat geotype on the production of capretto and chevon carcasses. 4. Chemical composition of muscle and fatty acid profiles of adipose tissue. Meat Sci. 52:375-379 crossref(new window)

Dutta, T. K., M. K. Agnihotri and N. Singh. 2003. Response of feeding complete broiler rations in different Indian kids for optimum growth and quality chevon production. In Technical Report of National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP), RPPS 12 (pp. 1-2). Mathura, India: Central Institute for Research on Goats

Enfalt, A. C., K. Lundstrom, N. L. Hansson and P. E. Nystrom. 1997. Effect of outdoor rearing and sire breed (Duroc or Yorkshie) on carcass composition and sensory and Technological meat quality. Meat Sci. 45:1-15 crossref(new window)

FAO. 2000. FAO Statistical Databases. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome

Frazier, W. and C. D. Westhoff. 1997. Food Microbiology (pp. 5- 10). 4th edn. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Book Company

Gibb, M. J., J. E. Cook and T. T. Treacher. 1993. Performance of British Saanen, Boer X British Saanen and Anglo-Nubian castrated male kids from 8 weeks to slaughter at 28, 33 or 38 kg live weight. Anim. Prod. 57:263-271

Hogg, B. W., G. J. K. Mercer, B. J. Mortimer, A. H. Kirton and D. M. Duganzich. 1992. Carcass and meat quality attributes of commercial goats in New Zealand. Small Rumin. Res. 8:243- 256 crossref(new window)

ICMSF. 1978. Microorganisms in foods I. Their significance and method of enumeration. International Community for Microbiological Specification of Foods (pp. 126-131). 2nd edn, University of Toronto Press, Toronto

Jacobs, J. A., R. A. Field, M. P. Botkin and M. L. Riley. 1973. Effect of dietary stress on lamb carcass composition and quality. J. Anim. Sci. 36:507-510

Jayathilakan, K., T. S. Vasundhara and K. V. Kumudavally. 1997. Effect of spices and maillard reaction products on rancidity development in precooked refrigerated meat. J. Food Sci. Technol. (India). 34:128-131

Johnson, D. D. and C. H. McGowan. 1998. Diet/mangement effects on carcass attributes and meat quality of young goats. Small Rumin. Res. 28:93-98 crossref(new window)

Konecko, E. W. 1979. Hand book for Meat Chemists. Avery Publishing Group, Wayne, USA

Kumar, S., M. K. Agnihotri, P. R. Deoghare and N. Sharma. 2002. Indian meat industry: challenges and opportunities. Process. Food Ind. 5:24-26, 31-33

Laack, L. J. M. 1994. Spoilage and preservation of muscle foods. In: (Ed. M. D. Kinsman, A. W. Kotula and B.C. Breidenstein), Muscle Foods: Meat, Poultry and Seafood Technology (pp. 378-405). London: Chapman and Hall

Maca, J. V., R. K. Miller and G. R. Acuff. 1997. Microbiological, sensory and chemical characteristics of vacuum-packed ground beef patties treated with salts of organic acids. J. Food Sci. 62:591-596 crossref(new window)

Masuda, T. and A. Jitoe. 1994. Antioxidative and antiinflammatory compounds from tropical gingers: isolation, structure determination and activities of cassumunins A, B and C, new complex curcuminoides from Zingiber cassumunar. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:1840-1856

McClure, K. E., R. W. Van Keuren and P. G. Althouse. 1994. Performance and carcass characteristics of weaned lambs either grazed on orchard grass, ryegrass, or alfalfa or fed all concentrate diets in dry lot. J. Anim. Sci. 72:3230-3237

Padda, G. S., N. Sharma and G. S. Bisht. 1989. Effect of some vegetative extenders on organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of goat meat balls. J. Meat Sci. Technol. 2:116-122

Pal, U. K. and M. K. Agnihotri. 1996. Effect of vegetable oil on the quality of fresh chevon sausages. J. Appli. Anim. Res. 9:187-191

Palic, A., D. A. Krizanek and L. Z. Dikanovic. 1993. Antioxidant properties of spices in raw ripened sausages. Fleischwirtschaft. 73:684-687

Paramasivam, A., S. Arunachalam, T. Sivakumar and T. Ramesh. 2002. Growth performance and carcass traits of Barbari goats under different systems of management. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 72:1016-1018

Park, Y. W., M. A. Kouassi and K. B. Chin. 1991. Moisture, total fat and cholesterol in goat organ and muscle meat. J. Food Sci. 56:1191-1193 crossref(new window)

Prasad, V. S. S. 1981. Effect of the residue after hand boning on the yield of bone in lamb carcasses. J. Agric. Sci. 97:469-471 crossref(new window)

Prasad, V. S. S. and M. K. Agnihotri. 1992. Relevance of frame size and fatness indices to live animal and carcass classification in goats. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 62:461-466

Rajkumar, V., M. K. Agnihotri and N. Sharma. 2004. Quality and shelf- life of vacuum and aerobic packed chevon patties under refrigeration. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(4):548-553

Rao, D. N. and V. Sreenivasamurthy. 1986. A preliminary study of the effect of urea in the preservation of meat. Meat Sci. 17:251-265 crossref(new window)

Shahidi, F., R. Amarowicz, U. N. Wanasundara and M. Karamac. 1996. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of mustard seed. Nahrung. 40:261-263 crossref(new window)

Shahjalal, M. D., H. Galbraith and J. H. Topps. 1992. The effect of changes in dietary protein and energy on on growth, body composition and mohair fibre characteristics of British Angora goats. Anim. Prod. 54:405-412

Shapton, D. A. and N. F. Shapton. 1991. Principles and Practices for the Safe Processing of Foods (pp. 377-444), Butterworth Heineman Ltd., Oxford

Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1968. Statistical Methods (pp, 299-338), 6th edn, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi

Strange, E. D., R. C. Benedict, J. L. Smith and C. E. Swift. 1977. Evaluation of rapid tests for monitoring alteration in meat quality during storage. J. Food Prot. 40:843-847

Trout, G. R. 1988. Techniques for measuring water binding (holding) capacity in muscle foods: A review of methodology. Meat Sci. 23:235-252 crossref(new window)

Prasad, V. S. S. and N. K. Sinha. 1991. Meat production profiles of Muzaffarnagari lambs in different carcass weight classes. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 61:747-752