Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Monitoring Feeding Adequacy in Dairy Cows Using Milk Urea and Milk Protein Contents under Farm Condition
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Monitoring Feeding Adequacy in Dairy Cows Using Milk Urea and Milk Protein Contents under Farm Condition
Dhali, A.; Mehla, R.K.; Sirohi, S.K.; Mech, A.; Karunakaran, M.;
  PDF(new window)
The experiment was conducted on 264 crossbred Karan-Fries (Holstein FriesianTharparkar) cows, over one year to explore the possibility of using milk urea (MU) concentration and milk protein content to monitor feeding adequacy under farm condition and to investigate the effects of different animal factors and season on MU concentration. Individual noon (1200 to 1300 h) milk samples were collected once in every month and analysed for urea and protein contents. Representative feed samples were also collected on the same day of milk collection and were analysed for CP content. A significant positive association (p<0.01) between MU concentration and milk yield was observed. MU concentrations (mg/dl) were found to be significantly (p<0.01) higher and lower in first lactation (44.80.7) and in early lactation stage (40.70.5), respectively. Average MU values were found to be significantly (p<0.01) higher in winter (50.70.3) and lower in summer (32.90.6). During the investigation, of the total MU observations, 50.3% were within the range of 30 to 50 mg/dl, 21.4% were <30 mg/dl and only 7.5% were >60 mg/dl. MU concentration was found to be associated significantly (p<0.05) with CP content of forages rather than concentrate. A close positive association (p<0.01) between MU level and daily milk protein (DMP) yield was observed during the investigation. The regression equation, DMP yield (g) = -24.6+33.5 daily milk yield (kg) +0.9 MU (mg/dl) was developed to establish the reference level of DMP yield. The result indicates that the effect of parity and stage of lactation may be ignored while interpreting MU values. However, reference MU values may be standardised separately for high milk yielders as level of milk yield contributes significantly to the variation of MU. The study revealed that the MU values together with DMP yield and milk protein content could be used as a potential non-invasive pointer to monitor feeding adequacy in dairy cows under farm conditions.
Milk Urea;Milk Protein;Milk Yield;Parity;Stage of Lactation;Season;
 Cited by
Relationship of Blood Metabolites with Reproductive Parameters during Various Seasons in Murrah Buffaloes,Khan, H.M.;Mohanty, T.K.;Bhakat, M.;Raina, V.S.;Gupta, A.K.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2011. vol.24. 9, pp.1192-1198 crossref(new window)
AOAC. 1984. Official Methods of Analysis. 14th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington, DC

Baker, L. D., J. D. Ferguson and W. Chalupa. 1995. Responses in urea and true protein of milk to different protein feeding schemes for dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 78:2424-2434

Barbano, D. M., J. M. Lynch and J. R. Fleming. 1991. Direct and indirect determination of true protein content of milk by Kjeldahl analysis: collaborative study. J. Assoc. Offic. Anal. Chem. 74:281-288.

Broderick, G. A. and M. K. Clayton. 1997. A statistical evaluation of animal and nutritional factors influencing concentrations of milk urea nitrogen. J. Dairy Sci. 80:2964-2971

Butler, W. R., J. J. Calaman and S. W. Bean. 1996. Plasma and milk urea nitrogen in relation to pregnancy rate in lactating dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 74:858-865

Carlsson, J., J. Bergstrom and B. Pehrson. 1995. Variations and breed, age, season, yield, stage of lactation and herd in the concentration of urea in bulk milk and individual cow's milk. Acta. Vet. Scand. 36:245-254

Coulon, J. B. and B. Remond. 1991. Variations in milk output and milk protein content in response to the level of energy supply to the dairy cows: A review. Livest. Prod. Sci. 29:31-47 crossref(new window)

Depeters, E. J. and J. P. Cant. 1992. Nutritional factors influencing the nitrogen composition of bovine milk: a review. J. Dairy Sci. 75:2043-2070

Dhali, A., R. K. Mehla and S. K. Sirohi. 2005a. Effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk urea concentration in crossbred Karan-Fries cows. Italian J. Anim. Sci. 4:25-34

Dhali, A., R. K. Mehla and S. K. Sirohi. 2005b. Factors influencing milk urea concentration: intake of protein and energy, diurnal variation and effect of storage. Ind. J. Anim. Sci. 75:60-63

Ferguson, J. D., D. T. Galligan, T. Blanchard and M. Reeves. 1993. Serum urea nitrogen and conception rate: The usefulness of test information. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3742-3746

Gouda, H. L. and J. E. Lindberg. 1994. Evaluation of dietary nitrogen utilization in dairy cows based on urea concentrations in blood, urine and milk, and on urinary concentration of purine derivatives. Acta. Agric. Scand., Section A, Anim. Sci. 44:236-245 crossref(new window)

Hwang, S. Y., M. J. Lee and P. W. Chiou. 2000. Monitoring nutritional status of dairy cows in Taiwan using milk protein and milk urea nitrogen. Asian-Aust. J Anim. Sci. 13:1667-1673

Jonker, J. S., R. A. Kohn and J. Hight. 2002. Use of milk urea nitrogen to improve dairy cow diets. J. Dairy Sci. 86:939-946

Kalchreuter, S. 1990. Advantages of urea estimation in milk. Tierzuchter 42:352-354

Mahanna, B. 1995. Feeding thumb rules revisited. Hoard's Dairyman. 25:613-620

National Research Council. 1989. Nutrients requirements of dairy cattle. 6th Rev. Ed. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC

Oltner, R. and H, Wiktorsson. 1983. Urea concentrations in milk and blood as influenced by feeding varying amounts of protein and energy to dairy cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 10:457-467 crossref(new window)

Oltner, R., M. Emanuelson and H. Wiktorsson. 1985. Urea concentrations in milk in relation to milk yield, live weight, lactation number and amount and composition of feed given to dairy cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 12:47-57 crossref(new window)

Paulicks, B. 1992. When is the urea test useful. Tierzuchter. 44:36- 38

Roseler, D. K., J. D. Ferguson, C. J. Sniffen and J. Herrema. 1993. Dietary protein degradability effects on plasma and milk urea nitrogen and milk nonprotein nitrogen in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:525-534

Sato, H. 1998. Correlations between milk urea and plasma metabolites and milk fat and protein concentrations in dairy cows. J. Jpn. Vet. Med. Assoc. 51:242-245

SPSS 10.0.1. SPSS$\bigcircR$ user's guide: Release 10.0.1 edition. SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA, 1999

Whitaker, D. A., J. M. Kelly and H. F. Eayres. 1995. Assessing dairy cow diets through milk urea tests. Vet. Rec. 136:179-180

Yoon, J. T., J. H. Lee, C. K. Kim, Y. C. Chung and C. -H. Kim. 2004. Effects of milk production, season, parity and lactation period on variations of milk urea nitrogen concentration and milk components of Holstein dairy cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:479-484