Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Energy Expenditure in Crossbred Cattle Fed Paddy Straw of Different Form
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Energy Expenditure in Crossbred Cattle Fed Paddy Straw of Different Form
Bhatta, Raghavendra; Kumar, Vijay; Sridhar, Manpal; Singh, Khub;
  PDF(new window)
Studies were carried out at the National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, India to determine the effect of feeding chopped paddy straw (Oryza sativa) on the energy expenditure in crossbred cattle. Four crossbred cattle male, aged 5-6 years and weighing about 450 kg were used for this study. Three experimental trials, one each for the feeding of un-chopped paddy straw offered ad libitum (UCA), chopped paddy straw fed at restricted level (CR) and chopped paddy straw offered ad libitum (CA) were conducted. The quantity of un-chopped paddy straw consumed during UCA was assumed as the voluntary intake by the cattle and the same quantity was offered after chopping during CR. Each trial comprised of 21 d preliminary feeding period and 5 d of observation recording period. Expired gas was collected in Douglas bags using a face-mask and three-way valve at 6 hourly intervals i.e., at 09.30, 15.30, 21.30, and 03.30 h throughout the observation period. Expired gas and ambient air inspired by the animals were analyzed for the oxygen content through paramagnetic oxygen analyzer. Energy expenditure (EE) by the animals was calculated by determining the volume of oxygen consumed per minute (STP) and multiplying by 4.825. Paddy straw used in all the three trials contained (g/kg DM) 90.0 CP, 786 OM, 700 NDF, 489 ADF, 357 Cellulose and 60.0 ADL. Metabolizable energy (ME) was 6.9 MJ/kg DM. Dry matter intake (DMI) both in UCA and CR was about 6.8 kg, except that it was chopped in CR. Chopping has resulted in 32% improvement (9 kg) in DMI of CA as compared to that of UCA. Although ME intake was similar in UCA and CR (47.2 MJ/day), energy expenditure (EE) was higher in UCA (23.3 MJ) when compared to that of CR (19.5 MJ). The ME intake (63.3 MJ) as well as EE (27.1 MJ) was highest in CA. Energy expenditure when expressed as MJ/kg DMI was 3.48, 2.90 and 3.12; whereas as per cent of ME intake it was 50, 41 and 44 in UCA, CR and CA respectively. Our study has unequivocally confirmed that chopping of poor quality roughages like paddy straw has definite advantages not only in terms of improving the intake by decreasing the time taken for ingestion but also in reducing the energy cost of eating.
Paddy Straw;Chopping;Intake;Energy Expenditure;Cattle;
 Cited by
Comparison of the effects of lanthanum, cerium and praseodymium on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle, Archives of Animal Nutrition, 2015, 69, 1, 46  crossref(new windwow)
Adam, I., B. A. Young, A. M. Nicol and A. A. Degen. 1984. Energy cost of eating in cattle given diets of different form. Anim. Prod. 38:53-56

AOAC. 1995. Animal feeds. In: Official Methods of Analysis, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Virginia, USA, pp. 1-18

Berman, A., Y. Folman, M. Kaim, M. Mamen, Z. Herz, D. Wolfenson, A. Arieli and Y. Graber. 1985. Upper critical temperatures and forced ventilation effects for high yielding dairy cows in a subtropical climate. J. Dairy Sci. 68:1488-1495

Bhatta, R., N. Swain, D. L. Verma and N. P. Singh. 2005. Effect of housing on physiological responses and energy expenditure of sheep in a semi-arid region of India. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18(8):1188-1193

Bhatta, R., V. Kumar, M. Sridhar and K. Singh. 2004. Comparative studies on the energy expenditure of cattle fed chaffed and unchaffed paddy straw. In: National seminar on 'New Dimensions of Animal Feeding to Sustain Development and Competitiveness' held at NIANP, Bangalore 24-26 November p. 47

Bosch, M. W., W. Lammers, H. B. Bangma and P. W. M. Van Adrichem. 1992. Influence of stage of maturity of grass silages on digestion process in dairy cows. 2 Rumen contents, passage rates, distribution of rumen and faecal particles and mastication activity. Livest. Prod. Sci. 32:265-281

Brody, S. 1945. Bioenergetics and Growth. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 330, West forty second street, New York, USA. p. 312

Campling, R. C. and C. C. Balch. 1961. Factors affecting the voluntary intake of food by cows. 1. Preliminary observations on the effect, on the voluntary intake of hay, of changes in the amount of reticulo-ruminal contents. Br. J. Nutr. 15:523-530 crossref(new window)

Deswysen, A. M., J. C. Vanbele, Bowman and P. Susmel. 1979. How chopping improves grass silage intake by sheep and heifers. In: The future of beef production in the European Community, 537-551

Freer, M., R. C. Campling and C. C. Balch. 1962. Factors affecting the voluntary intake of food by cows. 4. The behaviour and reticular motility of cows receiving diets of hay, oat straw and oat straw with urea. Br. J. Nutr. 16:279-295 crossref(new window)

Fugihara, T. and T. Nakao. 1982. Eating and rumination behaviour in sheep given silage made from the fibrous residue of broad bean (Vicia faba L.). J. Agric. Sci. (Cambridge). 98:237-240

Harvey, W. R. 1990. User's Guide for LSML MW and MIXMDL PC-2 Version, Fixed Model Least Square and Maximum Likelihood Computer Program. Columbus: Ohio State University

Mcleod, M. N. and B. R. Smith. 1989. Eating and ruminating behaviour in cattle given forages differing in fibre content. Anim. Prod. 48:503-511

Menke, K. H. and H. Steingass. 1988. Estimation of energetic feed values obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Develop. 28:7-55

Montgomery, D. C. 1976. Design and analysis of experiments. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York

Orskov, E. R. and N. A. Macleod. 1990. Dietary- induced thermogenesis and feed evaluation in ruminants. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 49:227-237

Osuji, P. O., J. G. Gordon and A. J. F. Webster. 1975. Energy exchanges associated with eating and rumination in sheep given grass diets of different physical forms. Br. J. Nutr. 34:59- 71

Poppi, D. P., D. J. Minson and J. R. Ternouth. 1981. Studies of cattle and sheep eating leaf and stem fractions of grasses. III. The retention time in the rumen of large feed particles. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 32:123-137 crossref(new window)

Retter, W. C. 1978. The effect of silage chop length on eating and ruminating times, and rate of passage in cattle. Anim. Prod. 26:362

Sahlu, T., H. G. Jung and J. G. Morris. 1989. Influence of grazing pressure on energy cost of grazing by sheep on smooth brome grass. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2098-2105

Shinde, A. K., R. Bhatta, S. K. Sankhyan and D. L. Verma. 2002. Effect of season on thermoregulatory responses and energy expenditure of goats on semi-arid range in India. J. Agric. Sci. (Cambridge). 139:87-93

Shinde, A. K., S. A. Karim, S. K. Sankhyan and R. Bhatta. 1998. Seasonal changes in physiological responses and energy expenditure of sheep maintained on semi-arid pasture. J. Agric. Sci. (Cambridge). 131:341-346

.Susenbeth, A., K. P. Aiple, G. U. Lang and R. Mayer. 1995. Effect of forage quality and particle size on voluntary feed intake and chewing activities of oxen. Anal. Zootech. (Suppl.) 44:251(Abstr.)

Susenbeth, A., R. Mayer, B. Koehler and O. Neumann. 1998. Energy requirement for eating in cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2701- 2705

Susenbeth, A., T. Dickel, K. H. Sudekum, W. Drochner and H. Steingass. 2004. Energy requirements of cattle for standing and for ingestion, estimated by a ruminal emptying technique. J. Anim. Sci. 82:129-136

Teller, E., M. Vanbelle and P. Kamatali. 1993. Chewing behaviour and voluntary grass silage intake by cattle. Livest. Prod. Sci. 33:215-227 crossref(new window)

Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597

Webster, A. J. F. 1972. Act of eating and its relation to the heat increment of feed in ruminants. In: Bioenergetics International Symposium on Environment Physiology, Dublin, pp. 42-48. Dublin: American Society of Experimental Biology

Welch, J. G. 1982. Rumination, particle size and passage from the rumen. J. Anim. Sci. 54:885-894