Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Quantification of Karanjin, Tannin and Trypsin Inhibitors in Raw and Detoxified Expeller and Solvent Extracted Karanj (Pongamia glabra) Cake
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Quantification of Karanjin, Tannin and Trypsin Inhibitors in Raw and Detoxified Expeller and Solvent Extracted Karanj (Pongamia glabra) Cake
Panda, A.K.; Sastry, V.R.B.; Kumar, A.; Saha, S.K.;
  PDF(new window)
Despite being a rich source of protein (28-34%), karanj (Pongamia glabra) cake is found to be bitter in taste and toxic in nature owing to the presence of flavonoid (karanjin), tannin and trypsin inhibitor, thereby restricting its safe inclusion in poultry rations. Feeding of karanj cake at higher levels (>10%) adversely affected the growth performance of poultry due to the presence of these toxic factors. Therefore, efforts were made to detoxify karanj cake by various physico-chemical methods such as dry heat, water washing, pressure cooking, alkali and acid treatments and microbiological treatment with Sacchraromyces cerevisiae (strain S-49). The level of residual karanjin in raw and variously processed cake was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and tannin and trypsin inhibitor was quantified by titrametric and colorimetric methods, respectively. The karanjin, tannin and trypsin inhibitor levels in such solvent and expeller pressed karanj cake were 0.132, 3.766 and 6.550 and 0.324, 3.172 and 8.513%, respectively. Pressure-cooking of solvent extracted karanj cake (SKC) substantially reduced the karanjin content at a cake:water ratio of 1:0.5 with 30-minute cooking. Among chemical methods, 1.5% (w/w) NaOH was very effective in reducing the karanjin content. treatment was also equally effective in karanjin reduction, but at a higher concentration of 3.0% (w/w). A similar trend was noticed with respect to treatment of expeller pressed karanj cake (EKC). Pressure cooking of EKC was effective in reducing the karanjin level of the cake. Among chemical methods alkali treatment [2% (w/w) NaOH] substantially reduced the karanjin levels of the cake. Other methods such as water washing, dry heat, HCl, glacial acetic acid, urea-ammoniation, combined acid and alkali, and microbiological treatments marginally reduced the karanjin concentration of SKC and EKC. Treatment of both SKC and EKC with 1.5% and 2.0% NaOH (w/w) was the most effective method in reducing the tannin content. Among the various methods of detoxification, dry heat, pressure cooking and microbiological treatment with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were substantially effective in reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity in both SKC and EKC. Based on reduction in karanjin, in addition to tannin and trypsin inhibitor activity, detoxification of SKC with either 1.5% NaOH or 3% , w/w) and with 2% NaOH were more effective. Despite the effectiveness of pressure cooking in reducing the karanjin content, it could not be recommended for detoxification because of the practical difficulties in adopting the technology as well as for economic considerations.
Karanjin;Tannin;Trypsin Inhibitor;Quantification;Karanj Cake;
 Cited by
Effects of Processing Method on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing-finishing Pigs Fed Lupine Seeds,;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2007. vol.20. 8, pp.1229-1235 crossref(new window)
) oil seed cake as partial protein supplement to soybean meal, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2009, 93, 2, 237  crossref(new windwow)
Synthesis and biological activity of chromones annelated at the C(7)–C(8) bond with heterocycles (review), Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, 2011, 47, 9, 1055  crossref(new windwow)
Oil, Fatty Acid Profile and Karanjin Content in Developing Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre Seeds, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 2012, 89, 12, 2237  crossref(new windwow)
Pod and seed traits in candidate plus trees of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre from southern peninsular India in relation to provenance variation and genetic variability, Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, 2013, 16, 2, 131  crossref(new windwow)
Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. 1967. Official methods of analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC

Chavan, J. K., S. S Kadam, C. P. Ghonsikar and D. K. Salunkhe. 1979. Sorghum tannins. J. Food Sci. 44:1319-1321 crossref(new window)

Davis, A. V. and R. C. Hosney. 1979. Grain sorghum condensed tannins, Preharvest changes. Cereal Chem. 56:314-316

Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and F-tests. Biometrics, 11:1- 42 crossref(new window)

Limaye, D. B. 1925. Karanjin. Part I: A crystalline constituent of the oil from P.glabra. Proc. 12th Ind. Acad. Sci. congress: 118

Mandal, L. and G. C. Banerjee. 1974. Studies on the utilization of karanj (P.glabra) oil cake in poultry rations. Indian J. Poult. Sci. 11:141-147

Mandal, B., S. G. Majumdar and C. R. Maity. 1985. Protease inhibitors and in vitro protein digestibility of defatted seed cakes of akashmoni and karanja. J. Am. Oil Chem. 62:1124- 1126 crossref(new window)

Ministry of Agriculture. 1992. All India final estimates of principal crops. Directorate of Economics of statistics, New Delhi

Montgomery, C. R., B. D. Nelson, R. Joost and L. F. Mason. 1986. Tannin concentration and quality changes in sorghum as affected by maturity and sorghum type. Crop. Sci. 26:372-375

Nagra, S. S., R. P. Sethi, J. S. Chawla and A. K. Chopra. 1994. Improvement in nutritional value of guar meal by fungal fermentation. Ind. J. Anim. Nutr. 11:7-11

Natanam, R., R. Kadirvel and D. Chandrasekaran. 1989b. Chemical composition of karanj (Pongamia glabra vent) kernel and cake as animal feed. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 6:270- 273

Natanam, R., R. Kadirvel and R. Balagopal. 1989a. The effect of kernels of karanj (P. glabra vent) on growth and feed efficiency in broiler chicks to 4 weeks of age. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 25:201-206 crossref(new window)

Pamar, B. S., K. L. Sahrawat and S. K. Mukerjee. 1976. P.glabra: Constituents and uses. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 35:608-611

Prabhu, T. M. 2002. Clinico nutritional studies in lambs fed raw and detoxified karanj (P.glabra vent) meal as protein supplement. PhD thesis submitted to Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar

Prabhu, T. M., C. Devakumar, V. R. B. Sastry and D. K. Agrawal. 2002. Quantification of karanjin using high performance liquid chromatography in raw and detoxified karanj (pongamia glabra vent) seed cake. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(3):416- 420

Roy, D. N. and P. S. Rao. 1971. Trypsin inhibitors assay from soybean. J. Agric. Food Chem. 19:257-259 crossref(new window)

Roy, J. H. B., C. C. Balch, E. L. Miller and E. R. Orskov. 1977. Calculation of the N-requirement for ruminants from nitrogen metabolism studies. In: protein metabolism and nutrition. EAAP: Wangeingen: 126

Singh, K. and S. P. Arora. 1978. Studies on detanning and determining the nutritive value of alkali treated sal seed meal. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 48:84-89

Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1989. Statistical Methods 8th Edn. The Iowa state University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA

Wah, C. S., K. Sharma and M. G. Jackson. 1977. Studies of various chemical treatment of sal seed meal to remove or inactivate tannins. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 47:8-12