JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Organic or Inorganic Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and White Blood Cell Counts in Weanling Pigs
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Organic or Inorganic Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and White Blood Cell Counts in Weanling Pigs
Kil, D.Y.; Piao, L.G.; Long, H.F.; Lim, J.S.; Yun, M.S.; Kong, C.S.; Ju, W.S.; Lee, H.B.; Kim, Y.Y.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of organic or inorganic acid supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal measurements and white blood cell counts of weanling pigs. In growth trial (Exp I), a total of 100 crossbred pigs ({}Duroc), weaned at days of age and average initial body weight (BW), were allotted to 5 treatments by body weight and sex in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Three different organic acids (fumaric [FUA], formic [FOA] or lactic acid [LAA]) and one inorganic acid (hydrochloric acid [SHA]) were supplemented to each treatment diet. Each treatment had 5 replicates with 4 pigs per pen. During 0-3 wk, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency (G/F ratio) were not significantly different among treatments. However, pigs fed LAA or SHA diet showed improved ADG by 15 or 13% respectively and 12% greater ADFI in both treatments compared to CON diets. Moreover, compared to organic acid treatments, better ADG (p = 0.07) and ADFI (p = 0.09) were observed in SHA diet compared to pigs that were fed the diet containing organic acids (FUA, FOA or LAA). However, during 4-5 wk, no differences in ADG, ADFI and G/F ratio were observed among treatments. Overall, ADG, ADFI and G/F ratio were not affected by acidifier supplementation. Although it showed no significant difference, pigs fed LAA or SHA diets showed numerically higher ADG and ADFI than pigs fed other treatments. In metabolic trial (Exp II), 15 pigs were used to evaluate the effect of acidifier supplementation on nutrient digestibility. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), crude ash (CA), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) was not improved by acidifier supplementation. Although the amount of fecal-N excretion was not different among treatments, that of urinary-N excretion was reduced in acidsupplemented treatments compared to CON group (p = 0.12). Subsequently, N retention was improved in acid-supplemented groups (p = 0.17). In anatomical trial (Exp III), the pH and concentrations of digesta in gastrointestinal (GI) tracts were not affected by acidifier supplementation. No detrimental effect of intestinal and lingual (taste bud) morphology was observed by acidifier supplementation particularly in inorganic acid treatment. In white blood cell assay (Exp IV), 45 pigs were used for measuring white blood cell (WBC) counts. In all pigs after LPS injection, WBC counts had slightly declined at 2 h and kept elevating at 8 h, then returned to baseline by 24 h after injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, overall WBC counts were not affected by acidifier supplementation. In conclusion, there was no difference between organic and inorganic acidifier supplementation in weanling pigs' diet, however inorganic acidifier might have a beneficial effect on growth performance and N utilization with lower supplementation levels. Furthermore, inorganic acidifier had no negative effect on intestinal measurements and white blood cell counts in weanling pigs. These results suggested that inorganic acidifier might be a good alternative to organic acidifiers in weanling pigs.
 Keywords
Weanling Pig;Organic and Inorganic Acidifier;Growth;Nutrient Digestibility;White Blood Cell Counts;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Associsation of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC

2.
Blank, R., R. Mosenthin, W. C. Sauer and S. Huang. 1999. Effect of fumaric acid and dietary buffering capacity on ileal and fecal amino acid digestibilities in early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2974-2984

3.
Burnell, T. W., G. L. Cromwell and T. S. Staly. 1988. Effects of dried whey and copper sulfate on the growth responses to organic acid in diets for weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 66:1100-1108

4.
Chung, W. D., S. H. Bae, Y. Hyun, K. S. Sohn and I. K. Han. 2000. Effect of various acidifiers on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of early weaned pig. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 42:55-64

5.
Clemens, E. T., C. E. Stevens and M. Southworth. 1975. Sites of organic acid production and pattern of digesta movement in the gastrointestinal tract of swine. J. Nutr. 105:759-768

6.
Cranwell, P. D., D. E. Noakes and K. J. Hill. 1976. Gastric secretion and fermentation in the suckling pig. Br. J. Nutr. 36:71 crossref(new window)

7.
Easter, R. A. 1993. Acidification of diets for pigs. Recent Developments in Pig Nutrition 2. pp. 256-266

8.
Eckel, B., M. Kirchgessner and F. X. Roth. 1992. Influence of formic acid on daily weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion rate and digestibility: 1. Nutritive value of organic acids in the rearing of piglets. J. Anim. Physiol. Nutr. 67:93-100

9.
Eggum, B. O. 1970. Blood urea measurement as a technique for assessing protein quality. Br. J. Nutr. 24:983 crossref(new window)

10.
Falkowski, J. F. and F. X. Aherne. 1984. Fumaric and citric acid as feed additives in starter pig nutrition. J. Anim. Sci. 58:935-938

11.
Giesting, D. W. and R. A. Easter. 1985. Response of starter pigs to supplementation of corn soybean meal diets with organic acids. J. Anim. Sci. 60(5):1288-1294

12.
Giesting, D. W. and R. A. Easter. 1986. Acidification-status in swine diets. Feed Management 37:8-10

13.
Giesting, D. W. and R. A. Easter. 1991. Effect of protein source and fumaric acid supplementation on apparent digestibility of nutrients by young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 69(6):2497-2503

14.
Hahn, J. D., R. R. Biehl and D. H. Baker. 1995. Ideal digestible lysine for early and late finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 73:773

15.
Hampson, D. J. and D. E. Kidder. 1986. Influence of creep feeding and weaning on brush border enzyme activities in the piglet small intestine. Res. Vet. Sci. 40:24

16.
Hampson, D. J. 1986. Alternations in piglet small intestinal structure at weaning. Res. Vet. Sci. 40:32

17.
Hannon, J. P., A. B. Carol and E W. Charles. 1990. Normal physiological values for conscious pigs used in biomedical research. Lab. Anim. Sci. 40(3):293

18.
Henry, R. W., D. W. Pickard and P. E. Hughes. 1985. Citric acid and fumaric acid as food additives for early-weaned piglets. Anim. Prod. 40:505-509

19.
Heugten, E. van, J. W. Spears and M. T. Coffey. 1994. The effect of dietary protein on performance and immune response in weanling pigs subjected to an inflammatory challenge. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2661-2669

20.
Honeyfield, D. C., J. A. Froseth and R. J. Barke. 1985. Dietary sodium and chloride levels for growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 60:691

21.
Kim, I. B., P. R. Ferket, W. J. Powers, H. H. Stein and T. A. T. G. van Kempen. 2004. Effects of different dietary acidifier sources of calcium and phosphorus on ammonia, methane and odorant emission from growing-finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(8):1131-1138

22.
Kirchegessner, M. and F. X. Roth. 1980. Digestibility and balance of protein, energy and some minerals in diets for piglets supplemented with fumaric acid. Z. Tierphysiol. Tierernaehr. Futtermittelkd. 44:239

23.
Kirchegessner, M. and F. X. Roth. 1982. Fumaric acid as a feed additive in pig nutrition. Pig News Info. 3:259

24.
Klasing, K. C. and R. E. Austic. 1984a. Changes in plasma, tissue and urinary nitrogen metabolites due to inflammatory challenge. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 176:276

25.
Klasing, K. C. and R. E. Austic. 1984b. Changes in protein synthesis due to an inflammatory challenge. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 176:285

26.
Klasing, K. C. and D. M. Barnes. 1988. Decreased amino acid requirements of growing chicks due to immunologic stress. J. Nutr. 118:1158

27.
Klasing, K. C. and E. Roura. 1991. Interactions between nutrition and immunity in chickens. Proc. Cornell Nutr. Conf. p. 94

28.
Kornegay, E. T., J. L. Evans and V. Ravindran. 1994. Effect of diet acidity and protein level or source of calcium on the performance, gastrointestinal content measurements, bone measurement, and carcass composition of gilt and barrow weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2670-2680

29.
Mahan, D. C., E. A. Newton and K. R. Cera. 1996. Effect of supplemental sodium chloride, sodium phosphate, or hydrochlorich acid in starter pig diets containing dried whey. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1217-1222

30.
Mahan, D. C., T. D. Wiseman, E. Weaver and L. Russell. 1999. Effect of supplemental sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid added to initial diets containing sprayed-dried blood plasma and lactose on resulting performance and nitrogen digestibility of 3-week-old weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 77:3016-3021

31.
NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine. 10th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC

32.
Overland, M., T. Granli, N. P. Kjos, O. Fjetland, S. H. Steien and M. Stokstad. 2000. Effect of dietary formates on growth performance, carcass traits, sensory quality, intestinal microflora, and stomach alterations in growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 78:1875-1884

33.
Patience, J. F. and M. S. Wolyntz. 1990. Influence of dietary undetermined anion and acid-base status and performance in pigs. J. Nutr. 120:579-587

34.
Patience, J. F. and R. K. Chaplin. 1997. The relationship among dietary undetermined anion, acid-base balance, and nutrient metabolism in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2445-2452

35.
Phillip, S. M., A. J. Lewis and H. Y. Chen. 1998. Plasma urea can be used to identify the protein requirements of group-penned finishing (130 to 220 lb) barrows and gilts fed corn-sobean diets. Univ. of Nebraska Swine Rep. 30-33

36.
Poulsen, H. D. and N. Oksbjerg. 1995. Effect of dietary inclusion of a zeolite (clinoptilolite) on performance and protein metabolism of young growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 53:297-303 crossref(new window)

37.
Radecki, S. V., M. R. Juhl and E. R. Miller. 1988. Fumaric and citric acids as feed additives in starter pig diets: Effect on performance and nutrient balance. J. Anim. Sci. 66:2598-2605

38.
Ravindran, V. and E. T. Kornegay. 1993. Acidification of weaner pig diets: A review. J. Sci. Food Agric. 62:313-322 crossref(new window)

39.
Risley, C. R., E. T. Kornegay, M. D. Lindemann, C. M. Wood and W. N. Eigel. 1992. Effect of feeding organic acids on selected intestinal content measurements at varying times postweaning in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 70:196-206

40.
Risley, C. R., E. T. Kornegay, M. D. Lindemann, C. M. Wood and W. N. Eigel. 1993. Effect of feeding organic acids on gastrointestinal digesta measurements at various times postweaning in pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 73:931-940

41.
SAS. 1990. SAS User's Guide, Statistics Version 6 Ed. SAS Institute Inc. NC. USA

42.
Scheuermann, S. E. 1993. Effect of the probiotic paciflor on energy and protein metabolism in growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Techol. 41:181 crossref(new window)

43.
Schoenherr, W. D. 1994. Phosphoric acid-based acidifiers explored for starter diets. Feedstuffs 66(40, Sept. 26)

44.
Scipioni, R., G. Zaghini and B. Biavati. 1978. The use of acidified diets for early weaned piglets. Zootech. Nutr. Anim. 4:201-218

45.
Straw, M. L., E. T. Kornegay, J. L. Evans and C. M. Wood. 1991. Effects of dietary pH and phosphorus source on performance, gastrointestinal tract digesta, and bone measurements of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 69:4496-4504

46.
Tsiloyiannis, V. K., S. C. Kyriakis, J. Vlemmas and K. Sarris. 2001. The effect of organic acids on the control of porcine postweaning diarrhea. Res. Vet. Sci. 70(3):287-293 crossref(new window)

47.
Wan, J. M. F., M. P. Haw and G. L. Blackburn. 1989. Nutrition, immune function and inflammation: An overview. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 48:315

48.
Wannemacher, R. W. 1977. Key role of various individual amino acids in host response to infection. J. Clin. Nutr. 30:1269

49.
Webel, D. M., B. N. Finck, D. H. Baker and R. W. Johnson. 1997. Time course of increased plasma cytokines, cortisol, and urea nitrogen in pigs following intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1514-1520

50.
Whang, K. Y. and R. A. Easter. 2000. Blood urea nitrogen as an index of feed efficiency and lean growth potential in growingfinishing swine. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13(6):811

51.
Yang, C. B., J. D. Kim, W. T. Cho and In K. Han. 2000. Effect of dietary cheju scoria meal on the performance of swine. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 42(4):467-476

52.
Yen, J. T., W. G. Pond and R. L. Prior. 1981. Calcium chloride as a regulator of feed intake and weight gain in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 52(4):778-782