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Effect of Levels of Sodium DL-malate Supplementation on Ruminal Fermentation Efficiency of Concentrates Containing High Levels of Cassava Chip in Dairy Steers
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 Title & Authors
Effect of Levels of Sodium DL-malate Supplementation on Ruminal Fermentation Efficiency of Concentrates Containing High Levels of Cassava Chip in Dairy Steers
Khampa, S.; Wanapat, Metha; Wachirapakorn, C.; Nontaso, N.; Wattiaux, M.A.; Rowlison, P.;
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Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a Latin square design to investigate effects of supplementation levels of sodium dl-malate in concentrates on rumen ecology, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance, feed intake and digestibility of nutrients and ruminal microbial protein synthesis. The dietary treatments were cassava concentrate-based, containing sodium dl-malate supplementation at 0, 9, 18 and 27 g/hd/d with urea-treated rice straw (UTS) fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, each period lasting 21 days. Ruminal pH increased with incremental addition of malate (p<0.05). Additionally, molar proportions of propionate were higher in supplemented groups and was highest at 18 g/hd/d of malate supplement (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis tended to be higher in dairy steers receiving sodium dl-malate supplements and also was the highest at 18 g/hd/d. Variable bacterial populations, such as amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic species were increased (p<0.05). Furthermore, protozoal populations were decreased significantly (p<0.05), while fungal zoospores were dramatically increased in dairy steers receiving sodium dl-malate supplement (p<0.05). These results suggested that supplementation of concentrate containing a high level of cassava chip at 18 g/hd/d with UTS in dairy steers could improve rumen fermentation efficiency and rumen microbial protein synthesis.
Sodium DL-malate;Rumen Fermentation;Microbial Protein Synthesis;Urea-treated Rice Straw;Dairy Steers;Ruminant;
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