Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Caponization Effects on Growth Performance and Lipid Metabolism in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Caponization Effects on Growth Performance and Lipid Metabolism in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels
Chen, Kuo-Lung; Hsieh, Tseng-Yueh; Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg;
  PDF(new window)
This trial was designed to study the caponization effects on the appearance, carcass characteristics, blood constituents and lipid metabolism of Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Cockerels were caponized at 8 weeks of age. Sixteen-week-old chickens, including 10 capons, 5 slips (incomplete caponized male chickens) and 20 normal chickens of equal sexes were selected for a 10 week ad libitum feeding trial. Results showed that the testosterone concentrations in the capons and females were lower (p<0.05) than that of intact males. The comb length, height and weights were also lower (p<0.05). The weight of the slips was between that of the capons and intact males, but was heavier (p<0.05) than that of the capon. The live-weight, carcass weight and shank perimeter in the capons were higher than those of the other groups (p<0.05). Hepatic lipogenic enzyme activity analyses showed that NADP-malic dehydrogenase (MDH) activity in the capons and female chickens was higher than that in intact male chickens (p<0.05). The MDH activity in the slips was between that for the capon and intact male chickens (p>0.05). The abdominal fat weight and relative abdominal fat weight of the capons and females were heavier than that for intact males (p<0.05); the slips were between the capons and intact males. The blood lipid content results showed that the triacylglycerol and cholesterol in the capons were higher than that for intact males (p<0.05). However, the percentage of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was lower than that in intact male chickens (p<0.05). It appears that the increase in lipid accumulation in caponized male chickens is attributed mainly to an increase in MDH activity and the changes in lipid transportation in the capons.
Taiwan Country Chickens;Caponization;Capon;Slip;Lipid Metabolism;
 Cited by
Comparison of the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Rhode Island Red (R-11) capons and cockerels, Annals of Animal Science, 2017, 0, 0  crossref(new windwow)
The effect of age and castration on the growth rate, blood lipid profile, liver histology and feed conversion in Green-legged Partridge cockerels and capons, animal, 2016, 1  crossref(new windwow)
Effect of caponization on the production performance, slaughter yield and fatty acid profile of muscles of Greenleg Partridge cocks, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2015, 52, 11, 7227  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of caponization on growth performance, carcass composition and meat quality of males of a layer line, animal, 2012, 6, 12, 2023  crossref(new windwow)
Effect of Caponization and Testosterone Implantation on Hepatic Lipids and Lipogenic Enzymes in Male Chickens, Poultry Science, 2007, 86, 8, 1754  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of caponization on fat metabolism-related biochemical characteristics of broilers, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2013, 97, 1, 162  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of caponization and age on the histology, lipid localization, and fiber diameter in muscles from Greenleg Partridge cockerels, Poultry Science, 2017  crossref(new windwow)
Gender, caponization and exogenous estrogen effects on lipids, bone and blood characteristics in Taiwan country chickens, Animal Science Journal, 2014, 85, 3, 305  crossref(new windwow)
Osteometric Effects of Surgical Caponisation on Some Long Bones in Cockerel Chickens, Advances in Zoology, 2014, 2014, 1  crossref(new windwow)
Long-bone properties and development are affected by caponisation and breed in Polish fowls, British Poultry Science, 2017, 1  crossref(new windwow)
Astiningsih, K. and L. J. Rogers. 1996. Sensitivity to testosterone varies with strain, sex and site of action in chickens. Physiol. Behav. 59:1085-1091 crossref(new window)

Burke, W. H. and H. M. Edwards. 1994. Effect of early castration on body weight, muscle growth, and bone characteristics of male Nicholas strain turkeys. Poult. Sci. 73:457-463

Cason, J. A., D. L. Fletcher and W. H. Burke. 1988. Effects of caponization on broiler growth. Poult. Sci. 67:979-981

Chang, C. H. 2001. Investigation of carcass and meat characteristics from different sizes commercial capon in Taiwan. Master thesis. National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

Chapman, M. T. 1980. Animal lipoproteins: Chemistry, Structure and Comparative Aspects. J. Lipid Res. 21:789-852

Chen, K. L., C. P. Wu and R. G. R. Chou. 2000a. Effect of castration age on growth performance and postmortem change in muscles of Taiwan country chicken. J. Agric. Assoc. China. 1(1):54-63

Chen, K. L., C. P. Wu and Y. M. Hong. 2000b. Meat quality and carcass traits of capon in comparison with intact male and female Taiwan country chickens. J. Chin. Soc. Anim. Sci. 29(1):77-88

Chen, K. L., M. H. Chang, S. M. Tsay, H. Y. Hurng and P. W. S. Chiou. 2005a. Effects of caponization on bone characteristics and histological structure in male chickens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19(2):245-251

Chen, K. L., W. T. Chi and P. W. S. Chiou. 2005b. Caponization and testosterone implantation effects on blood lipid and lipoprotein profile in male chickens. Poult. Sci. 84:547-552

Chromy, V., J. Gergel, J. Voznicek, L. Krombholzova and J. Musil. 1977. Assay of serum free fatty acids by extractionphotometric procedure. Clin. Chim. Acta. 80:327-332 crossref(new window)

Deyhim, F., R. E. Moreng and E. W. Kienholz. 1992. The effect of testosterone propionate on growth of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 71:1921-1926

Donaldson, W. E. 1990. Lipid metabolism in liver of chicks: response to feeding. Poult. Sci. 69:1183-1187

Fennell, M. J. and C. G. Scanes. 1992. Inhibition of growth in chickens by testosterone, 5${\alpha}$-dihydrotestosterone and 19- nortestosterone. Poult. Sci. 71:357-366

Fennell, M. J., S. V. Radecki, J. A. Proudman and C. G. Scanes. 1996. The suppressive effects of testosterone on growth in young chicken appears to be mediated via a peripheral androgen receptor; studies of the anti-androgen ICI 176, 344. Poult. Sci. 75:763-766

Griffin, H. D., K. Guo, D. Windsor and S. C. Butterwith. 1992. Adipose tissue lipogenesis and fat deposition in leaner broiler chickens. J. Nutr. 122:363-368

Grunder, A. A., J. R. Chambers and A. Forti. 1987. Plasma very low density lipoproteins, abdominal fat lipase, and fatness during rearing in two strains of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 66(3):471-479

Hermier, D., M. J. Chapman and B. Leclercq. 1984. Plasma lipoprotein profile in fasted and refed chickens of two strains selected for high or low adiposity. J. Nutr. 114:1112-1121

Hermier, E., D. Catheline and P. Legrand. 1996. Relationship between hepatic fatty acid desaturation and lipid secretion in the estrogenized chicken. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 115:259- 264 crossref(new window)

Hermier, D. 1997. Lipoprotein metabolism and fattening in poultry. J. Nutr. 127:805-808

Houstmuller, A. J. 1969. Agarose-gel electrophoresis of lipoproteins: A clinical screening test. Koninklike Van Gorcum and Comp, the Netherlands, pp. 5

Hsieh, T. Y. 2002. Effects of castration in Taiwan country chicken cockerels on growth performance and lipid metabolism. Master thesis. National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

Jiang, W. K. 1989. Effect of protein level of diet and breed on hepatic lipogenic enzymes activities of chicken. Master thesis. National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

Kuo, T. W. 2002. Effect of different castrated ways and different castrated weeks on meat characteristics of Taiwan country chicken. Master thesis. National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

Legrand, P., J. Mallard, M. A. Bernard-Griffiths, M. Douaire and P. Lemarchal. 1987. Hepatic lipogenesis in genetically lean and fat chickens. In vitro studies. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 87B:789-792

Leveille, G. A., D. R. Romos, Y. Y. Yeh and E. K. O'Hea. 1975. Lipid biosynthesis in the chick. A consideration of site of synthesis, influence of diet and possible regulatory mechanisms. Poult. Sci. 54:1075-1093

Li, P. H., H. M. Chiang and T. T. Hsu. 1987. Serum testosterone concentrations and semen quality in landrace and duroc boars housed in a tropical area. J. Chin. Soc. Anim. Sci. 16(1-2):31- 39

Lien, T. F., K. H. Yang and K. L. Lin. 2005. Effects of chromium propionate supplementation on growth performance, serum traits and immune response in weaned pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:403-408

Lohr, G. W. and H. D. Wallex. 1974. Method of Enzymatic Analysis. Academic Press, New York, pp. 636-645

Lowry, O. H., N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr and R. J. Randall. 1951. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193:265-270

Mashaly, M. 1984. Effect of caponization on cell-mediated immunity of immature cockerels. Poult. Sci. 63:369-372

Morgan, J. B., T. L. Wheeler, M. Koogmaraie, J. D. Grouse and J. W. Savell. 1993. Effect of castration on myofibrillar protein turnover, endogenous proteinase activities, and muscle growth in bovine skeletal muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 71:408-414

Ochoa, S. 1969. Malic enzyme. In: Method in Enzymeology. (Ed. S. P. Colowick and N. O. Kaplan). Academic Press, New York, Vol. 1 pp. 739-753

Ono, O., I. Hisao, T. Hitoshi and O. Masao. 1979. Studies on the growth skeletal muscle of capon. Effects of castration on the weights of skeletal muscle, abdominal fat, intermuscular fat, skin, bone and viscera. Sci. Bull. Fac. Agr. Kyushu Univ. 34:39-46

Ono, Y., I. Hisao and T. Hitoshi. 1982. Studies on the growth skeletal muscle of capon II. Effects of castration on muscle weights in different body parts and individual muscle weight. Sci. Bull. Fac. Agr, Kyushu Univ. 37:23-30

Polin, D. and J. H. Wolford. 1977. Role of estrogen as a cause of fatty liver-hemorrhage syndrome. J. Nutr. 197:873-886

Rath, N. C., W. E. Huff, J. M. Balog and G. R. Bayyari. 1996. Effect of gonadal steroid on bone and other physiological parameters of male broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 75:556-562

SAS Institute Inc. 1985. SAS/STAT User's Guide: Version 6. 4th edn. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina

Schneider, W. J. 1992. Lipoprotein receptors in oocyte growth. Clin. Investig. 70:385-390

Schneider, W. J. 1995. Yolk precursor transport in the laying hen. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 6:92-96 crossref(new window)

Squires, E. J. and S. Lesson. 1988. Aetiology of fatty liver syndrome in laying hens. Br. Vet. J. 144:602-609

Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1960. Principles and procedures of statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, New York

Takeda, Y., F. S. Zuki and H. Inoue. 1963. Citrate cleavage enzyme. In: Methods in Enzymology. Academic Press Inc. New York, Vol. 5:154

Walzem, R. L., P. A. Davis and R. J. Hansen. 1994. Overfeeding increase very low density lipoprotein diameter and causes the appearance of a unique lipoprotein particle in association with failed yolk deposition. J. Lipid Res. 35:1354-1366

Wang, H. T. 2001. Effects of Surgical caponization and administration of estradiol to chicken embryos on daily activity, agonistic behavior, growth performance, carcass traits and sensory evaluation of males Taiwan country chickens. Master thesis. National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

Whitehead, C. C., R. L. Hood, G. S. Heard and R. A. E. Pym. 1984. Comparison of plasma very low density lipoproteins and lipogenic enzymes as predictors of fat content and food conversion efficiency in selected lines of broiler chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 72:1479-1491

Yeh, Y. Y., G. A. Leveille and J. H. Wiley. 1970. Influence of dietary lipid on lipogenesis and on the activity of malic enzyme and citrate cleavage enzyme in liver of the growing chick. J. Nutr. 100:917-927

Yeh, Y. Y. and G. A. Leveille. 1971. Studies on the relationship between lipogenesis and the level of coenzyme A derivatives, lactate and pyruvate in the chick liver. J. Nutr. 101:911-918