JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Cassoy-urea Pellet as a Protein Source in Concentrate on Ruminal Fementation and Digestibility in Cattle
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of Cassoy-urea Pellet as a Protein Source in Concentrate on Ruminal Fementation and Digestibility in Cattle
Wanapat, Metha; Promkot, C.; Wanapat, S.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Four male crossbred native beef cattle (average body weight of 427.7 kg) were randomly allocated to four types of cassoy-urea pellet as a source of protein in concentrate according to a Latin square design to determine effect of diets on ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility. The four types of cassoy-urea pellets contained cassava hay, soybean meal, urea and binding agent at 79.2:19.8:0:1 (27.9% CP dry matter), 78.4:19.6:1:1 (30.4% CP), 77.6:19.4:2:1 (33.0% CP) and 99:0:0:1 (23.8% CP) for dietary treatments; 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. All four concentrate mixtures contained similar crude protein levels (11% CP) and were fed to animals in two equal parts (0.5% of body weight per day) while urea-treated rice straw (5% urea) was given ad libitum. The experiment revealed that dietary concentrate treatments had no effect on dry matter intake while digestibilities of neutral-detergent fiber and crude protein were higher (p<0.05) in cattle fed dietary treatments 1, 2 and 3 than in cattle fed dietary treatment 4. Ruminal ammonia-nitrogen (-N), was higher and acetic acid concentration (C2) and ratio of C2 to propionic acid (C3) were lower (p<0.05) in cattle fed dietary treatments 1, 2 and 3 than in those on treatment 4. It is concluded that use of cassoy-urea pellet as a protein source in concentrates for cattle resulted in improvement of digestibility, ruminal fermentation and rumen ecology. Further research using cassoy-urea pellet in feeding trials with milking cows and fattening beef should be undertaken.
 Keywords
Cassava Hay;Cassoy-urea Pellet;Rumen Fermentation;Volatile Fatty Acids;Urea-treated Rice Straw;Cattle;Rumen Ecology;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Virginia

2.
Barry, T. N. and T. R. Manley. 1984. The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus peduculatus for sheep 2. Ouantitative digestion of carbohydrates and protein. Br. J. Nutr. 51:493 crossref(new window)

3.
Bezkorowajnyi, P., M. Wanapat and S. Pongpirote. 1986. Supplementation of cassava leaf and cassava chip to rice straw based-diets for growing cattle. In: Proc. Straw and Related Feed in Ruminants Rations. Kandy, Srilunka, University of Peredaniya

4.
Broderick, G. A. 2005. Factors affecting microbial protein synthesis in the rumen with emphasis on diets based on tropical forages. In: Intergrating livestock-crop systems to meet the challenges of globalisation Vol. I Proc. AHAT/BSAS International Conference November 14-18, 2005, Khon Kaen, Thailand. pp. 249-259

5.
Crocker, C. L. 1967. Rapid determination of urea nitrogen in serum or plasma without deproteinzation. Am. J. Med. Techn. 33:361-365

6.
Devendra, C. 1992. Non-Conventional Feed Resources in Asia and the Pacific (4th Ed.) AO/RAPA, Bangkok

7.
Doyle, P. T., C. Devendra and G. R. Pearce. 1986. Rice straw as a feed for ruminants. International Development Program of Australian Universities and Colleges (IDP), Canberra, Australia, p. 117

8.
Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage Fiber Analysis (Apparatus, Reagent, Procedures and Some Application): Agric. Handbook No. 379. ARS, USDA, Washington, DC

9.
Khampa, S., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn, N. Nontaso and M. Wattiaux. 2006. Effect of levels of sodium dl-malate supplementation on ruminal fermentation efficiency in concentrates containing high levels of cassava chip in dairy steers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:368-375

10.
Khampa, S., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn, N. Nontaso and M. Wattiaux. 2006. Effects of urea level and sodium dl-malate in concentrate containing high cassava chip on ruminal fermentation efficiency, microbial protein synthesis in lactating dairy cows raised under tropical condition. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:837-844

11.
Jones, W. T. and J. L. Mangan. 1977 Complexes of the condensed tannins of sanfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) with fraction 1 leaf protein and with submaxillary mucoprotein and their reversal by polyethylene glycol and pH. J. Sci. Food Agric. 28:126 crossref(new window)

12.
Koakhunthod, S., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn, N. Nontaso, P. Rowlinson and N. Sornsungnern. 2001. Effect of cassava hay and high-quality feed block supplementation on milk production in lactating dairy cows. In: Proc. International Workshop on Current research and development of cassava as animal feeds, organized by Khon Kaen University and Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) and Swedish Agency for Research and Cooperation with Developing Countries (SAREC), July 23-24, Kosa Hotel, Thailand

13.
Nolte, J. E., A. V. Ferreira and H. H. Köster. 2003. Effect of amount of rumen degradable protein on the utilization of wheat straw by Dohne Merino wethers. Anim. Sci.76:319-326

14.
Perdok, H. and R. A. Leng. 1989. Rumen ammonia requirements for efficient digestion and intake of straw by cattle. In: The Roles of Protozoa and Fungi in ruminant Digestion (Ed. J. V. Nolan and R. A. Leng), Penambul Books, Armidale, Australia

15.
Promkot, C. and M. Wanapat. 2003: Ruminal degradation and intestinal digestion of crude protein of tropical protein resources using nylon bag technique and three-step in vitro procedure in dairy cattle; Livestock Research for Rural Development (15)11. Retrieved, from http://www.cipav.org. co/lrrd/lrrd15/ 11/prom1511.htm

16.
Puga, D. C., H. M. Galina, R. F. PeArez-Gil, G. L. SangineAs, B. A. Aguilera and G. F. W. Haenlein. 2001. Effect of a controlled-release urea supplement on rumen fermentation in sheep fed a diet of sugar cane tops (Saccharum of ${\circledR}$ cinarum), corn stubble (Zea mays) and King grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Small Rumin. Res. 39:269-276 crossref(new window)

17.
Oltjen, R. R. 1969. Effects of feeding ruminants non-protein nitrogen as the only nitrogen source. J. Anim. Sci. 28:673-682

18.
Reed, J. D. 1995 Nutritional toxicology of tannins and related polyphenols in forage legumes. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1516

19.
Samuel, M., S. Sagathewan, J. Thomas and G. Methen. 1997. An HPLC method for estimation of volatile fatty acid of ruminal fluid. J. Anim. Sci. 67:805-807

20.
SAS. 1998. User's Guide: Statistics, Version 7th Edition. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC

21.
Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and Procedure of Statistics. McGraw Hill Book Co. New York

22.
Van Keulen, J. and B. A. Young. 1977. Evaluation of acid insoluble ash as a neutral marker in ruminant digestibility studies. J. Anim. Sci. 44:282-287

23.
Wanapat, M. 2003. Manipulation of cassava Cultivation and Utilization to improve protein to energy biomass for livestock feeding in the tropics. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(3):463-472

24.
Wanapat, M., A. Petlum and O. Pimpa. 2000a. Supplementation of cassava hay to replace concentrate use in lactating Holstein Friesian crossbreds. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:600-604

25.
Wanapat, M., C. Promkot, S. Wanapat and P. Rowlinson. 2004. Cassava hay as a protein replacement for soybean meal in concentrate supplement for dairy cows. In: New dimentions and challenges for sustainable livestock farming Vol. II Proc. The 11th Animal science Congress, AAAP, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 419-422

26.
Wanapat, M., C. Wachirapakorn, S. Chanthai and K. Sommart. 1992. Utilization of cassava leaf (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) in concentrate mixtures for swamp buffaloes in Thailand. In: Proc. Feeding Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity in Areas of Fluctuating Nutrient Supply Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria, March 30 -April 3, pp. 33-38

27.
Wanapat, M., C. Wachirapakorn, S. Wanapat and A. Polthanee. 2004. Development and manipulation of local feed resources for sustainable dairying in the tropics. In: New dimentions and challenges for sustainable livestock farming Vol. II Proc. The 11th Animal science Congress, AAAP, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia . pp. 46-51

28.
Wanapat, M., O. Pimpa, A. Petlum and U. Boontao. 1997. Cassava hay: A new strategic feed for ruminants during the dry season. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 9 (2):IRRD Home Page: http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/

29.
Wanapat, M., T. Puramongkon and W. Siphuak. 2000b. Feeding of cassava hay for lactating dairy cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:478-482