JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Chemical Composition, In situ Digestion Kinetics and Feeding Value of Oat Grass (Avena sativa) Ensiled with Molasses for Nili-Ravi Buffaloes
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Chemical Composition, In situ Digestion Kinetics and Feeding Value of Oat Grass (Avena sativa) Ensiled with Molasses for Nili-Ravi Buffaloes
Khan, Muhammad Ajmal; Sarwar, M.; Nisa, M.; Iqbal, Z.; Khan, M.S.; Lee, W.S.; Lee, H.J.; Kim, H.S.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
This study examined the effect of cane molasses and fermentation time on chemical composition and characteristics of oat grass silage (OGS) and its in situ digestion kinetics, intake, digestibility, milk yield and composition in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Oat grass (OG) harvested at 50-days of age was ensiled in laboratory silos with cane molasses at the rate of 0, 2, 4 and 6% of OG dry matter (DM) for 30, 35 and 40 days. Silage pH was decreased while lactic acid content increased with increasing level of cane molasses and fermentation time. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and true protein (TP) content of OGS were (p<0.05) significantly higher with higher cane molasses levels. However, they were not affected by the fermentation time. Similar trends were observed for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose, acid detergent lignin and ash content of OGS. The OG ensiled for 30-days with 2% molasses was screened from laboratory study and used to determine comparative in situ DM and NDF digestion kinetics of OG and its silage. In situ DM and NDF digestibilities of OG were significantly (p<0.05) higher than OGS. Ruminal DM and NDF lag time, rate and extent of digestion of OG and its silage were similar. Two experimental diets of OG and OGS were formulated using 75:25 forage to concentrate ratio on a DM basis. Dry matter and CP intakes were similar in lactating buffaloes fed either OG- or OGS-based diets. However, NDF intake was higher in buffaloes fed the OG-compared with OGS-based diet. Apparent DM, CP and NDF digestibilities were similar in lactating buffaloes fed either OG- or OGS-based diets. Milk yield (4% FCM) was similar in buffaloes fed either OG-(10.3 kg/d) or OGS-(9.95 kg/d) based diets. Milk fat, total solids and true protein content were higher with OG compared with the OGS diet. Solids not fat and CP content were similar in milk of buffalo fed either OG or OGS. The results of this study indicate that OG ensiled with 2% molasses could safely replace 75% DM of green oat fodder in the diets of lactating buffaloes without negatively affecting intake, digestibility, milk yield and composition.
 Keywords
Grass Silage;Fermentable Carbohydrate;Digestibility;Milk Yield;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
AOAC. 1999. Official Methods of Analysis ($16^{th}$ Ed). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, USA

2.
AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis ($15^{th}$ Ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, Virginia, USA

3.
Bolsen, K. K., G. Ashbell and Z. G. Weinberg. 1996. Silage fermentation and silage additives: Review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 9:483-489

4.
Broderick, G. A. 1986. Relative value of solvent and expeller soybean meal for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2948-2954

5.
Bureenok, S., T. Namihira, M. Tamaki, S. Mizumachi, Y. Kawamoto and T. Nakada. 2005. Fermentative quality of Guinea grass silage by using fermented juice of the epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) as a silage additive. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:807-813

6.
Clark, J. H. and C. L. David. 1990. Some aspects of feeding high producing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 68:873-881

7.
Evitayani, L. Warly, A. Fariani, T. Ichinohe and T. Fujihara. 2004. Seasonal changes in nutritive value of some grass species in west Sumatra, Indonesia. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1663-1668

8.
Johnson, L., J. H. Harrison, C. Hunt, K. Shinners, C. G. Doggett and D. Sapienza. 1999. Nutritive Value of corn silage as affected by maturity and mechanical processing. J. Dairy Sci. 82:2813-2819

9.
Khan M. A., Z. Iqbal, M. Sarwar, M. Nisa, M. S. Khan, W. S. Lee, H. J. Lee and H. S. Kim. 2006a. Urea Treated Corncobs Ensiled with or without Additives for Buffaloes: Ruminal Characteristics, Digestibility and Nitrogen Metabolism. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:705-712

10.
Khan, M. A., M. Sarwar, M. Nisa, M. S. Khan, S. A. Bhatti, Z. Iqbal, W. S. Lee, H. J. Lee, H. S. Kim and K. S. Ki. 2006b. Feeding Value of Urea Treated Wheat Straw Ensiled with or without Acidified Molasses in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:645-650

11.
Khan, M. A., M. Sarwar, M. Nisa and M. S. Khan. 2004. Feeding value of urea treated corncobs ensiled with or without enzose (corn dextrose) for lactating crossbred cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1093-1097

12.
Khorasani, G. R., E. K. Okine, J. J. Kennelly and J. H. Helm. 1993. Effect of whole crop cereal grain silage substituted for alfalfa silage on performance of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3536

13.
Kung. Jr., L. J. R. Robinson, N. K. Ranjit, J. H. Chen, C. M. Golt and C. D. Pesek. 2000. Microbial populations, fermentation end products and aerobic stability of corn silage treated with ammonia or a propionic acid-based preservative. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1479-1486

14.
Leibensperger, R. Y. and R. E. Pitt. 1998. Modeling the effects of formic acid and molasses on ensilage. J. Dairy Sci. 71:1220-1228

15.
Man, N. V. and H. Wiktorsson. 2001. Cassava tops ensiled with or without molasses as additive effect on quality, feed intake and digestibility by heifers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:624-631

16.
Maruyama, S. I. Yokoyama, H. Asai, S. Sakaguchi, T. Ohtani, H. Yokota and K. Kita. 2005. Influence of ripening stages on the quality of whole crop silage and grain silage of Fodder rice. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci.18:340-246

17.
McDonald, P. 1981. The biochemistry of silage. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY

18.
Mertens, D. R. 1977. Dietary fiber components: relationship to the rate and extent of ruminal digestion. Feed Process. 36:187-199

19.
Masters, D. G., H. C. Norman and E. G. Barrett-Lennard. 2005. Agricultural systems for saline Soil: The potential role of livestock. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18(2):296-300

20.
Mertens, D. R. and J. R. Loften. 1980. The effect of starch on forage fiber digestion kinetics in vitro. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1437-1444

21.
Nisa, M., M. A. Khan, M. Sarwar, M. Mushtaque, G. Murtaza, W. S. Lee and H. S. Kim. 2006. Influence of Re-growth Interval on Chemical Composition, Herbage Yield, Digestibility and Digestion Kinetics of Setaria sphacelata and Cenchrus ciliaris in Buffaloes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:381-385

22.
Nisa, M., N. A. Touqir, M. Sarwar, M. A. Khan and M. Akhatar. 2005. Effect of additives and fermentation periods on chemical composition and in situ digestion kinetics of Mott grass (Pennisitum purpureum) silage. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:812-815

23.
NRC (National research council). 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. $7^{th}$ revised Edn. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. USA

24.
Rooke, J. A. 1995. The effect of increasing the acidity of osmolarity of grass silage hay the addition free of partially neutralized lactic acid on silage intake by sheep and upon osmolarity and acid base balance. J. Anim. Sci. 61:285-293

25.
Ruiz, T. M., W. K. Sanchez, C. R. Straples and L. E. Sollenberger. 1992. Comparison of "Mott" dwarf elephant grass silage and corn silage for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:533-539

26.
Sarwar, M., M. Nisa, M. A. Khan and M. Mushtaque. 2006. Chemical composition, herbage yield, and nutritive value of Panicum antidotale and Pennisetum orientale for Nili buffaloes at different clipping intervals. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:176-184

27.
Sarwar, M., M. A. Khan, M. Nisa and N. A.Touqir. 2005. Influence of berseem and lucerne silages on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield in lactating Nili buffaloes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:475-478

28.
Sarwar, M., M. A. Khan and M. Nisa. 2004. Influence of ruminally protected fat and urea treated corncobs ensiled with or without corn steep liquor on nutrient intake, digestibility, milk yield and its composition in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:86-93

29.
Sarwar, M., M. A. Khan and Z. Iqbal. 2002. Feed resources for livestock in Pakistan. Intl. J. Agric. Biol. 4:186

30.
Sarwar, M. and Z. U. Hasan. 2001. Nutrient Metabolism in Ruminants. Friends Science Publishers, 399-B, Peoples colony # 1, Faisalabad, Pakistan. ISBN 969-8490-03-5

31.
Sarwar, M., J. L. Firkins and M. L. Estridge. 1991. Effect of replacing neutral detergent fiber of forage with soy hulls and corn gluten feed for dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 74:1006-1015

32.
SAS. (Statistical Analysis System). 1988. 'SAS user's guide: Statistics' (SAS Inst. Inc., Carry, NC)

33.
Shaoa, Tao, M. Shimojo, T. Wanga and Y. Masuda. 2005. Effect of additives on the fermentation quality and residual mono- and disaccharides compositions of forage oats (Avena sativa L.) and Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silages. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1582-1587

34.
Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1984. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. (2nd Ed.) McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. New York, USA

35.
Torotich, M. J. 1992. Minimizing the loss of ammonia during urea treatment of wheat straw for growing calves. M.Sc. Thesis, Haryana Agriculture University, Hissar, India

36.
Van Keulen, J. and B. A. Young. 1977. Evaluation of acid insoluble ash as a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies. J. Anim. Sci. 44:282-289

37.
Van Soest, P. J., H. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Method of dietary fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal material. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3591