Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Utilization of Steam-treated Oil Palm Fronds in Growing Goats: 1. Supplementation with Dietary Urea
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Utilization of Steam-treated Oil Palm Fronds in Growing Goats: 1. Supplementation with Dietary Urea
Paengkoum, Pramote; Liang, J.B.; Jelan, Z.A.; Basery, M.;
  PDF(new window)
Five male dairy goats (Saanen), 4.6 month old with a body weight of 21.4 () kg, were used to examine 5 dietary urea treatments in a Latin Square experimental design. The five levels of urea were 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g urea/kg DM of steam-treated oil palm fronds (OPF) and dry matter intake tended (p>0.05) to increase with increasing urea supplementation up to 30 g/kg OPF (77.7 g/kg ), but decreased (p<0.05) with 40 and 50 g urea/kg OPF (67.4 and 63.7 g/kg BW0.75, respectively) supplementation. Similarly, dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and hemicellulose digestibilities increased (p<0.05) with the addition of urea to 30 g/kg OPF but thereafter decreased (p<0.05) with 40 and 50 g/kg OPF. Ruminal pH, ruminal -N concentration and plasma urea concentration increased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) as a consequence of addition of urea to the diet. Excretion of total purine derivatives (PD) by goats fed 30 g of urea/kg OPF was highest (p<0.05) followed by goats fed 20, 40, 10 and 50 g of urea/kg OPF. Microbial N (g N/day) and efficiency of microbial N supply expressed as g N/kg organic matter apparently digested in the rumen were higher (p<0.05) in goats fed 30 g of urea/kg OPF (5.5 g N/day and 22.0 g N/kg DOMR, respectively) than in goats on 10 and 50 g of urea/kg OPF treatments. However, the former did not differ from goats fed 20 g of urea/kg OPF (3.9 g N/day and 16.6 g N/kg DMOR, respectively). Ruminal VFA concentration, protein/energy ratio, N absorption and N retention increased (p<0.05) with the addition of urea to the diet up to 30 g/kg OPF but decreased (p<0.05) with 40 and 50 g/kg OPF. This implies that the optimal level of urea supplementation in an OPF based diet was about 30 g urea/kg OPF.
Fermentable Protein;Urea;Oil Palm Fronds;Dairy Goats;
 Cited by
Influence of palm fatty acid distillate on rumen degradability and protozoa population in buffaloes, Italian Journal of Animal Science, 2010, 9, 4, e75  crossref(new windwow)
Abu Hassan, O., R. Azizan, A. R. Ishida and C. Abu Baka. 1993. Oil palm fronds silage as a roughage source for milk production in Sahiwal-Friesian cows. In: Proc. of 16th MSAP, 8-9 June 1993, Lungkawi, Malaysia. pp. 34-35

Abu Hassan, O. and A. R. Ishida. 1992. Status of utilization of selected fibrous crop residues and animal performance with emphasis on processing of oil palm fronds (OPF) for ruminant feed in Malaysia. TARS No. 25, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tsukuba, Japan. pp. 134-143

Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1980. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 14th Edition, catalog card no. 20-21343. Washington, DC

Agricultural Research Council. 1984. The Nutrition Requirement of Ruminant Livestock. Agricultural Research Council. Commonwealt Agriculture Bureaux, UK

Badamana, M. S. and J. D. Sutton. 1992. Hay intake, milk production and rumen fermentation in British Saanen goats given concentrates varying widely in protein concentration. Anim. Prod. 54:395-403

Balcells, J., J. A. Guada and J. M. Peiro. 1992. Simultaneous determination of allantoin and oxypurines in biological fluids by high performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatog. 575:153-157 crossref(new window)

Bengaly, K., J. B. Liang, Y. W. Ho, Z. A. Jelan and K. K. Ong. 2000. Effect of steaming conditions on nutrient contents and degradability of oil palm frond. Proc. 22nd MSAP Conf., May 29-June 1, 2000, Sabah, Malaysia

Chanjula, C., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn and P. Rowlinson. 2004. Effect of Synchronizing Starch Sources and Protein (NPN) in the Rumen on Feed Intake, Rumen Microbial Fermentation, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1400-1408

Chang, M. B., J. W. Joo, G. S. Bae, W. K. Min, H. S. Choi, W. J. Maeng and Y. H. Chung. 2005. Effect of Protein Sources on Rumen Microbial Protein Synthesis Using Rumen Simulated Continuous Culture System. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:326-332

Chen, X. B., Y. K. Chen, M. F. Franklin, E. R. Orskov and W. J. Shand. 1992. The effect of feed intake and body weight on purine derivative excretion and microbial protein supply in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 70:1534-1542

Ciszuk, P. and J. E. Lindberg. 1988. Responses in feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen retention in lactating dairy goats fed increasing amounts of urea and fish meal. Acta Agric. Scandinavia. 38:381-395

Cressman, S. G., D. G. Gieve, G. K. McLeod, E. E. Wheeler and L. G. Young. 1980. Influence of dietary protein concentration on milk production by dairy cattle in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1839-1847

Czerkawski, J. W. 1986. An Introduction to Rumen Studies. Pergamon Press, New York. p. 236

Dahlan, I., M. Islam and M. A. Rajion. 2000. Nutrient intake and digestibility of fresh, ensiled and pelleted oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) frond by goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:1407-1413

Dutta, N., K. Sharma and Uma Naulia. 2004. Nutritional Evaluation of Lentil (Lens culinaris) Straw and Urea Treated Wheat Straw in Goats and Lactating Buffaloes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1529-1536

Furguson, J. H. 1985. Mammalian Physiology. Charles Merrill Publishing Co., Columbus. (Ed. H. K. Goering and P. J. Van Soest) 1970. Forage Fiber Analysis (Apparatus, Reagents, Procedures and Some Application). Agric. Handbook No. 379. ARS, USDA, Washington, DC

Haddad, S. G., R. T. Kridli and D. M. Al-Wadi. 2005. Influence of varying levels of dietary undegraded intake protein intake on nutrient intake, body weight change and reproductive parametere in postpartum Awassi ewes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:367-642

Helmer, L. G. and S. Barley. 1971. Progress in the utilization of urea as a protein replacer for ruminants. A review. J. Dairy Sci. 54:25-51

Ishida, M., O. Abu Hassan, T. Nakui and F. Terada. 1994. Oil palm fronds as ruminant feed. Newsletter for international Collaboration. 2:1

Islam, M., I. Dahlan, M. A. Rajion and Z. A. Jelan. 2000. Rumen pH and Ammonia Nitrogen of cattle fed different levels of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) frond based diets and dry matter degradation of fractions of oil palm frond. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:941-947

Jetana, T., N. Abdullah, R. A. Halim, S. Jalaludin and Y. W. Ho. 2000. Effects of energy and protein supplementation on microbial-N synthesis and allantoin excretion in sheep fed guinea grass. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 84:167-181 crossref(new window)

Kebreab, E., J. France, J. A. N. Mills, R. Allison and J. Dijkstra. 2002. A dynamic model of N metabolism in the lactating dairy cow and an assessment of impact of N excretion on the environment. J. Anim. Sci. 80:248-259

Koster, H. H., R. C. Cochran, E. C. Titgemeyer, E. S. Vanzant, I. Abdelgadir and G. St-Jean. 1996. Effect of increasing degradable intake protein on intake and digestion of lowquality, tall grass-prairie forage by beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2473-2482

Koster, H. H., R. C. Cochran, E. C. Titgemeyer, E. S. Vanzant, T. G. Nagaraja, K. K. Kreikemeier and G. S. Jean. 1997. Effect of increasing proportion of supplemental nitrogen from urea intake and utilization of low-quality, tallgrass-prairie forage by beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1393-1399

Leng, R. A. and G. J. Leonard. 1965. Measurement of the rates of production of acetic, propionic and butyric acids in the rumen of sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 19:469-484 crossref(new window)

Leng, R. A. 1990. Application of Biotechnology to Nutrition Animals in Developing Countries. In: FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 90. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation

Leng, R. A. 1991. Application of Biotechnology to Nutrition of Animals in Developing Countries. FAO. Rome. p. 146

Leng, R. A. 1997. Tree Foliage in Ruminant Nutrition. FAO, Rome. p. 100

National Research Council. 1988. Nutrient Requirement of Dairy Cattle. National Academy Press. USA. p. 115

McDonald, P., R. A. Edwards and J. F. D. Greenhalgh. 1995. Animal Nutrition. 5th ed. Singapore, Longman Singapore Publishers

Merchen, N. R. 1988. Digestion, absorption and excretion in ruminants. In: The Ruminant Animal: Digestive Physiology and Nutrition. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. pp. 172-201

National Research Council. 1981. Nutrient Requirement of Goats: Angora, Dairy and Meat Goats in Temperate and Tropical Countries. Washington, DC, National Academy Press

National Research Council. 1985. Nutrient Requirements of Sheep. 6th ed. Washington, DC. National Academic Press

National Research Council. 1988. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th ed. Washington, DC. National Academic Press

Mould, F. L. and E. R. Orskov. 1993. Manipulation of rumen fluid pH its influence on cellulysis in sacco, dry matter degradation and the rumen microflora of sheep offered either hay or concentrate. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 10:1-14 crossref(new window)

Orskov, E. R., C. Fraser and I. McDonald. 1971. Digestion of concentrates in sheep, I. the effect of increasing the concentration of soyabean meal in a barley diet on apparent disappearance of feed constituents along the digestive tract. Br. J. Nutr. 25:225-233 crossref(new window)

Paengkoum, P., M. Wanapat and C. Wachirapakorn. 2002. Supplementation of cassava chip and cottonseed meal on feed intake, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy cattle. PWPA. J. Thailand. 4:9-16

Presston, T. R. and R. A. Leng. 1987. Matching Ruminant Production Systems with Available Resources in the Tropics and Subtropics. Armidale, Australia: Penambul Books

Rush, I. G., R. R. Johnson and R. Totysek. 1976. Evaluation of beef cattle range supplements containing urea and biuret. J. Anim. Sci. 42:1297-1306

SAS. 1988. User's Guide: Statistic, Versions 5. Edition SAS. Inst. Cary, NC

Schneider, B. H. and W. P. Flatt. 1975. The Evaluation of Feed Through Digestibility Experiment Athens. The Univ. of Georgia Press. Georgia, USA

Sinclair, L. A., P. C. Garnsworthy, J. R. Newbold and P. J. Battery. 1995. Effects of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen release in diets with a similar carbohydrate composition on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 124:463-472 crossref(new window)

Souri, M., H. Galbraith and J. R. Scaife. 1998. Comparisons of the effect of genotype and protected methionine supplementation on growth, digestive characteristics and fibre yield in cashmere-yielding and Angora goats. Anim. Prod. 66:217-223

Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torries. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistic a Biomatereal Approach. (2 ed), McGrow-Hill. New York: USA

Sun, S. and R. J. Christopherson. 2005. Urea kinetics in wethers exposed to different ambient temperatures at three dietary levels of crude protein. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:795-801

Tamminga, S. 1996. A review on environmental impacts of nutritional strategies in ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 74:3112-3124

Tareque, A. M. M. 1987. Non-protein and agro-industrial byproducts utilization by ruminants. In: Isotope Aided Studies on Non-protein Nitrogen and Agro-Industrial By-products Utilization by Ruminants. Proc. of the final research coordination meeting. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597

Wallace, R. J. 1979. Effect of ammonia concentration on the composition, hydrolytic activity and nitrogen metabolism of the microbial flora of the rumen. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 47:443-455

Wanapat, M., O. Pimpa, A. Petlum and C. Wachirapakorn. 2000a. Participation scheme of smallholder dairy farmers in the NE, Thailand on improving feeding systems. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci.13:830-836

Wanapat, M., T. Puramongkon and W. Siphuak. 2000b. Feeding of cassava hay for lactating dairy cows during the dry season. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:478-482

Wan Zahari, M., O. Abu Hassan, H. K. Wong and J. B. Liang. 2002. Utilization of oil palm frond based diets for beef and dairy production in Malaysia. In: Prod. 2002 International Symposium on Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition, Sep 22, 2002, New Delhi, India. pp. 127-136

Yamamoto, S., M. Sumida and T. Kosako. 1985. Evaluation of fast-response calorimetric, used for calibration of the relationship between heart rate and heat production in farm animals. Japanese J. Zootech. Sci. 56:947-953