Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Amino Acid Imbalance-Biochemical Mechanism and Nutritional Aspects
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Amino Acid Imbalance-Biochemical Mechanism and Nutritional Aspects
Park, Byung-Chul;
  PDF(new window)
Amino acid imbalances refer to the deleterious effects that occur when a second-limiting amino acid or mixture of amino acid lacking a particular limiting amino acid is supplemented in diets marginal in one or more indispensable amino acids. In spite of variation in the conditions that have been used to induce amino acid imbalances, such as protein level in the diet, the extent of difference in total nitrogen content between basal and imbalanced diets, and kinds of amino acids used as imbalancing agents, the conspicuous common features of amino acid imbalances have been a decreased concentration of the limiting amino acid in blood, depression of feed intake and weight gain, and increased dietary content of the limiting amino acid needed to correct the imbalances. There is strong evidence that a decrease in the concentration of a limiting amino acid detected in the anterior prepyriform cortex of the brain is followed by behavioral effects, especially a decrease in feed intake. This might be due to the competition between the limiting amino acid and the amino acids in the imbalancing mixture for transport from blood into brain. One of the biochemical responses of animals fed amino acid imbalanced diets is a rapid decrease in the concentration of the limiting amino acid, which are due in part to an increase in catabolism of the limiting amino acid by the increased activities of enzymes involved in the catabolism of the amino acid. Practically, specific amino acid imbalances could be induced in swine and poultry diets that have been supplemented with lysine, methionine, tryptophan when threonine, isoleucine, valine, etc. are potentially third- or fourth-limiting in diets. In these cases supplementation of the limiting amino acid could be beneficial in preventing the decrease of feed intake that could otherwise occur as a result of amino acid imbalance.
Amino Acid Imbalance;Feed Intake;Growth Rate;Enzymes;
 Cited by
fed low fishmeal diet, Aquaculture Nutrition, 2015, 23, 1, 54  crossref(new windwow)
Dietary Protein, Metabolism, and Aging, Annual Review of Biochemistry, 2016, 85, 1, 5  crossref(new windwow)
Baker, D. H. 1986. Utilization of isomers and analogs of amino acids and other sulfur-containing compounds. Prog. Food Nutr. Sci. 10:133-178

Bellinger, L. L., D. W. Gietzen and F. E. Williams. 1994. Liver denervation, 5 $HT_3$ receptor antagonist and intake of imbalanced amino acid diet. Brain Res. Bull. 32:549-554 crossref(new window)

Beverly, J. L., D. W. Gietzen and Q. R. Roger. 1991. Threonine concentration in the prepyriform cortex has separate effects on dietary selection and intake of a threonine-imbalanced diet by rats. J. Nutr. 121:1287-1292

Boebel, K. P. and D. H. Baker. 1982a. Comparative utilization of $\alpha$-keto and D-and L-${\alpha}$-hydroxy analogs of leucine, isoleucine, and valine by chicks and rats. J. Nutr. 112:1929-1939

Boebel, K. P. and D. H. Baker. 1982b. Comparative utilization of the isomers of phenylalanine and phenyllactic acid by chicks and rats. J. Nutr. 112:367-376

Calderon, V. M. and L. S. Jensen. 1990. The requirement for sulfur amino acid by laying hens as influenced by the protein concentration. Poult. Sci. 69:934-944

Cieslak, D. and N. J. Benevenga. 1984. The effect of amino acid excess on utilization by the rat of the limiting amino acidthreonine. J. Nutr. 114:1871-1877

Davis, A. T. and R. E. Austic. 1982a. Threonine imbalance and the threonine requirement of the chicken. J. Nutr. 112:2170-2176

Davis, A. T. and R. E. Austic. 1982b. Threonine metabolism of chicks fed threonine-imbalanced diets. J. Nutr. 112:2177-2186

Davis, A. T. and R. E. Austic. 1994. Dietary threonine imbalances alters threonine dehydrogenase activity in isolated hepatic metochondria of chicks and rats. J. Nutr. 124:1667-1677

D'Mello, J. P. F. 1990. Lysine utilization by broiler chicks. Proceedings of VIII European Poultry Conference, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 302-305

Esteve-Garcia, E. 1984. Protein and amino acid metabolism in an isoleucine imbalance. MS thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

Fernandez, S. R., S. Aoyagi, Y. Han, C. M. Parsons and D. H. Baker. 1994. Limiting order of amino acids in corn and soybean meal for growth of the chick. Poult. Sci. 73:1887-1896

Fisher, H. and R. Shapiro. 1961. Amino acid imbalance: Rations low in tryptophan, methionine or lysine an the efficiency of utilization of nitrogen in imbalanced rations. J. Nutr. 75:395-401

Gietzen, D. W. 1993. Neural mechanisms in the response to amino acid deficiency. J. Nutr. 123:610-625

Gietzen, D. W., P. M. B. Leung and Q. R. Rogers. 1986. Norepinephrine and amino acids in prepyriform cortex of rats fed imbalanced amino acid diets. Physiol. Behav. 36:1071-1080 crossref(new window)

Harper, A. E., R. M. Miller and K. P. Block. 1984. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 4:409-454 crossref(new window)

Harper, A. E. 1976. Protein and amino acids in the regulation of food intake. In Hunger: Basic mechanism and clinical implications. (Ed. D. Novin, W. Wyrwicka and G. Bray), Raven Press, NY, pp. 103-113

Harper, A. E., N. J. Benevenga and R. M. Wohlheuter. 1970. Effects of ingestion of disproportionate and amount of amino acids. Physiol. Rev. 50:428-558

Harper, A. E. and Q. R. Rogers. 1965. Amino acid imbalance. Pro. Nutri. Soc. 24:173-190

Harper, A. E. 1964. Amino acid toxicities and imbalances. In mammalian protein metabolism Vol. II (H. N. Munro and J. B. Allison), Academic Press, NY, pp. 87-134

Harper, A. E., P. M. B. Leung, A. Yoshida and Q. R. Rogers. 1964. Some new thoughts on amino acid imbalance. Fed. Proc. 23:1087-1092

Harper, A. E. 1956. Amino acid imbalances, toxicities and antagonisms. Nutr. Rev. 14:225-227

Harrison, L. M. and J. P. F. D'Mello. 1987. Zinc deficiency, amino acid imbalance and brain catecholamine concentrations in the chickens. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 46:58A

Hendriks, W. H., Y. H. Cottam P. C. H. Morel and D. V. Thomas. 2004. Source of the variation in meat and born meal nutritional quality. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:94-101

Hier, S. W., C. E. Graham and D. Klain. 1944. Inhibitory effect of certain amino acids on growth of young male rats. Pro. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 56:187-190

Hsia, L. C. 2005. The effect of spray-dried porcine plasma and tryptophan on feed intake and performance of weaning piglets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:75-79

Ip, C. C. Y. and A. E. Harper. 1974. Liver polysome profiles and protein synthesis in rats fed a threonine-imbalanced diet. J. Nutr. 104:252-263

Jensen, L. S. and G. L. Colnago. 1991. Amino acids and protein for broilers and laying hens. In Proceedings Maryland Nutrition Conference, Baltimore, MD, pp. 29-36

Keshavarz, K. 1997. Investigations on the use of low-protein, amino acid-supplemented diets for poultry. In Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers, Rochester, NY, pp. 156-166

Klain, G. J. and R. L. Winders. 1964. Metabolic studies of an amino acid imbalance in cold-exposed rats. J. Nutr. 82:333-337

Leung, P. M. B. and Q. R. Roger. 1987. The effect of amino acid and protein on dietary choice. In Umami: a basic taste, (Ed. Y. Kawamura and M. R. Kare), Marcel Mekker, NY, pp. 565-610

Leung, P. M. B. and Q. R. Roger. 1969. Food intake: regulation by plasma amino acid pattern. Life Sci. 8:1-9

Leung, P. M. B., Q. R. Rogers and A. E. Harper. 1968. Effect of amino acid imbalance on dietary choice in the rat. J. Nutr. 95:483-492

Noda, K., Y. Kusaka and A. Yoshida. 1967. Activities of threonine dehydrogenase and histidase of rats fed on either threonine or histidine imbalanced diet. Agr. Biol. Chem. 31:217-222

Osborne, T. B. and L. B. Mendel. 1914. Amino acids in nutrition and growth. J. Biol. Chem. 17:325-349

Pant, K. G. 1967. Some of aspects of tryptophane imbalance induced in niacin-free or adequate-niacin diets. Ph.D. Thesis, Cambridge, Mass, MIT

Park, B. C. and R. E. Austic. 2000. Isoleucine imbalance using selected mixtures of imbalancing amino acids in diets of the broiler chick. J. Poult. Sci. 79:1782-1789

Park, B. C. and R. E. Austic. 1998. Changes in hepatic branchedchain $\alpha$-keto acid dehydrogenase activity in response to isoleucine imbalance in growing chickens. J. Nutr. Biochem. 9:687-696 crossref(new window)

Patridge, I. G., A. G. Low and H. D. Keal. 1985. A note on the effects of feeding frequency on nitrogen use in growing boars given diets with varying levels of free lysine. Anim. Produc. 40:375-377

Paxton, R. and R. A. Harris. 1984. Regulation of branched chain $\alpha$-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 231:58-66 crossref(new window)

Peng, Y. S. and J. K. Evenson. 1979. Food preference and protein intake of normal and diabetic rat diets varying in protein quality and quantity. J. Nutr. 109:1952-1961

Peng, Y. S., L. Meliza, M. G. Vavich and A. R. Kemmerer. 1975. Effects of amino acid imbalance and protein content of diets on food intake and preference of young, adult and diabetic rats. J. Nutr. 105:1395-1404

Peng, Y., J. K. Tews and A. E. Harper. 1972. Amino acid imbalance, protein intake and changes in rat brain and plasma amino acids. Am. J. Physiol. 222:314-321

Peng, Y. and A. E. Harper. 1969. Amino acid balance and food intake: effect of amino acid infusions on plasma amino acids. Am. J. Physiol. 217:1441-1445

Robbins, K. R. and D. H. Baker. 1977. Comparative utilization of L-leucine and DL-$\alpha$-hydroxy leucine by the chick. Nut. Rep. Int. 16:611-615

Rolls, B. A., J. W. G. Porter and D. R. Westgarth. 1972. The courses of digestion of different food proteins in the rat. 3. The absorption of proteins given alone and with supplements of their amino acids. Br. J. Nutr. 28:283-293 crossref(new window)

Savage, J. R. and A. E. Harper. 1964. Influence of gelatin on growth and liver pyridine nucleotide concentration of the rat. J. Nutr. 83:158-164

Salmon, W. D. 1954. The tryptophan requirement of the rats as affected by niacin and level of dietary nitrogen. Arch. Biochem. Biophy. 51:30-41 crossref(new window)

Soliman, A. G. and K. W. King. 1969. Metabolic derangements in response of rats to ingestion of imbalanced amino acid mixtures. J. Nutr. 98:255-270

Tackman, J. M., J. K. Tews and A. E. Harper. 1990. Dietary disproportions of amino acids in the rat: effects on food intake, plasma and brain amino acids and brain serotonin. J. Nutr. 120:521-533

Tews, J. K., Y.-W. L. Kim and A. E. Harper. 1979. Induction of threonine imbalance by dispensable amino acids: relation to competition for amino acid transport into brain. J. Nutr. 109:304-315

Tews, J. K., Y.-W. L. Kim and A. E. Harper. 1980. Induction of threonine imbalance by dispensable amino acids: relationship between tissue amino acid and diets in rats. J. Nutr. 110:394-408

Tobin, G. and K. N. Boorman. 1979. Carotid or jugular amino acid infusions and food intake in the cockerel. Br. J. Nutr. 41:157-162 crossref(new window)

Waldorf, M. A., M. C. Kirk, H. Linkswiler and A. E. Harper. 1963. Metabolic adaptations in higher animals. VII. Reponses of glutamate-pyruvate transaminases to diet. Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 112:754-763

Wethli, E., T. R. Morris and T. P. Shresta. 1975. The effects of feeding high levels of low-quality proteins to growing chickens. Br. J. Nutr. 34:363-373