Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Replacing Ground Corn with Cassava Chip in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Utilization, Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Populations in Goats
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Replacing Ground Corn with Cassava Chip in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Utilization, Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Populations in Goats
Chanjula, P.; Ngampongsai, W.; Wanapat, M.;
  PDF(new window)
Ten male crossbred (Thai Nubian) goats with average live weight of kg were randomly assigned according to a replicated Latin square design to receive five diets, = concentrate with 0% cassava chip (CC), = 25% CC, = 50% CC, = 75% CC and = 100% CC. Fresh elephant grass (FEG) was offered ad libitum as the roughage. A metabolism trial lasted for 21 days during which liveweight changes and feed intakes were measured. Based on this experiment, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, NDF and ADF), except for (100% CC) which was lowest (p<0.05) in digestion coefficient of CP than and . Rumen parameters (ruminal pH, -N and volatile fatty acids), blood urea nitrogen, blood glucose and packed cell volume were similar among treatments. Moreover, rumen microorganism populations were not affected (p>0.05) by cassava inclusion. The amount of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except for which tended to be slightly lower. Based on this experiment, it could be concluded that the optimal level of cassava inclusion to replace corn in goat diets was in the range of 25-75% of CC when fed with FEG and it was a good approach in exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.
Cassava Chip;Corn;Goats;Rumen Fermentation;Nitrogen Balance;
 Cited by
Effects of Sago Palm Pith as Replacement for Corn Grain on Intake, Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial N Supply of Cattle Fed Paspalum plicatulum Hay,Chanjula, P.;Ngampongsai, W.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2009. vol.22. 3, pp.378-387 crossref(new window)
Amount of Cassava Powder Fed as a Supplement Affects Feed Intake and Live Weight Gain in Laisind Cattle in Vietnam,Ba, Nguyen Xuan;Van, Nguyen Huu;Ngoan, Le Duc;Leddin, Clare M.;Doyle, Peter T.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2008. vol.21. 8, pp.1143-1150 crossref(new window)
AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analyses, 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, VA.

Brigstocke, T. D. A., N. H. Cuthbert, W. S. Thickett, M. A. Lindeman and P. N. Wilson. 1981. A comparison of a dairy cows compound feed with and without a cassava given with grass silage. Anim. Prod. 33:19-24.

Brigstocke, T. D. A., N. H. Cuthbert, W. S. Thickett, M. A. Lindeman and P. N. Wilson. 1981. A comparison of a dairy cows compound feed with and without a cassava given with grass silage. Anim. Prod. 33:19-24. crossref(new window)

Calpe, C. 1992. Roots, tubers and plantains: recent trends in production, trade and use. In: Rubbers, Plantains and Bananas in Animal feeding. (Ed. D. Machin and S. Nyvild). FAO Animal production and Health Paper 95, pp. 11-25.

Chamberlain, D. G., P. C. Thomas, W. Wilson, C. J. Newbold and C. J. MacDonald. 1985. The effects of protein and carbohydrate supplements on ruminal concentrations of ammonia in animals given diets of grass silage. J. Agric. Sci.(Camb.). 104:331-340. crossref(new window)

Chanjula, P., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn and P. Rowlinson. 2004. Effect of synchronizing starch sources and protein (npn) in the rumen on feed intake, rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient utilization and performance of lactating dairy cows Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1400-1410.

Chanjula, P., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn, S. Uriyapongson and P. Rowlinson. 2003. Ruminal degradability of tropical feeds and their potential use in ruminant diets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:211-216.

Coleman, G. S. 1986. The distribution of carboxymethycellulase between fractions taken from the rumens of sheep containing no protozoa or one of seven different protozoal population. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.). 107:709-722. crossref(new window)

Crocker, C. L. 1967. Rapid determination of urea nitrogen in serum or plasma without deproteinzation. Am. J. Medical Techn. 33:361-365.

Eggum, B. O. 1970b. Blood urea measurement as a technique for assessing protein quality. Br. J. Nutr. 24:983-296. crossref(new window)

Etman, K. E. I., I. M. Soliman, I. A. S. Abou-Selim and A. A. Soliman. 1993b. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, crantz.) in rations of buffaloes: Ι. Effect of partial replacement of yellow corn by cassava pellets in rations of growing buffaloes calves. In: Prospects of buffaloes production in the Mediterranean and the middle east (Ed. M. Shafie, A. H. Barkawi, S. A. Ibrahim and R. R. Sadek). Cairo, Egypt. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. pp. 302-304

Fadel, J. G., P. Uden and P. H. Robinson. 1987. Effect of nitrogen and energy supplements on intake and digestion of oat straw by non-lactating dairy cows. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.). 109:503-517. crossref(new window)

Firat, A. and A. Ozpinar. 1996. The study of changes in some blood parameters (glucose, urea, bilirubin AST) during and after pregnancy in association with nutritional conditions and litter size in ewes. Turk Veterinerlik ve Hayvncilik Dergisi. 20:387-393.

Ford, E. J., J. Evans and I. Robinson. 1990. Cortisol in pregnancy toxemia of sheep. Br. Vet. J. 146:539-542.

France, J. and R. C. Siddons. 1993. Volatile fatty acid production. In: Quantitive Aspects Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism. (Ed. J. M. Forbes and J. France). CAB International, Willingford, UK. pp. 107-122.

Galyean, M. 1989. Laboratory Procedure in Animal Nutrition Research. Department of Animal and Life Science. New Mexico State University, USA.

Gelaye, S., E. A. Amoh and P. Guthrie. 1990. Performance of yearling goats fed alfalfa and florigraze peanut hay. Small Rumin. Res. 3:353-361. crossref(new window)

Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage Fiber Analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures, and some applications). Agriculture Handbook. No. 370, USDA-ARS, Washington, DC, 20pp.

Gomez, G. and M. Valdivieso. 1984. Cassava for animal feeding: effect of variety and plant age on production of leaves and roots. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 11:49-55. crossref(new window)

Hart, F. J. and M. Wanapat. 1992. Physiology of digestion of ureatreated rice straw in swamp buffalo. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 5:617-622.

Holzer, Z., Y. Aharoni, V. Lubimov and A. Brosh. 1997. The feasibility of replacement of grain by tapioca in diets for growing-fattening cattle. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 64:133-141. crossref(new window)

Hoover, W. H. 1986. Chemical factors involved in ruminal fiber digestion. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2755-2766. crossref(new window)

Hove, K. and K. Halse. 1983. Energy metabolism in ruminants with special reference on ketosis and fertility. Proc. 5th Int. onf. Prod. Dis. Farm Anim. Uppsata, Sweden, pp. 115-123.

Huntington, G. B. and S. L. Archibeque. 1999. Practical aspects of urea and ammonia metabolism in ruminants. Proc. Am. Soc. Anim. Sci. pp. 1-11.

Jain, N. C. 1993. Essential of Veterinary Hematology. Lea & Febiger. Philadelphia.

Jouany, J. P. 1988. Effect of diets on populations of rumen protozoa in relation to fibre digestion. In "The Roles of Protozoa and Fungi in Ruminant Digestion" (Ed. J. V. Nolan, R. A. Leng and D. I. Demeyer). Penambul Books, Armidale, Australia. pp. 59-74.

Jouany, J. P. and K. Ushida. 1999. The role of protozoa in feed digestion. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 12:113-126.

Kabi, F., F. B. Bareeba, O. Havrevoll and I. D. T. Mpofu. 2005. Evaluation of protein degradation characteristics and metabolisable protein of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and locally available protein supplements. Livest. Prod. Sci. 95:143-153. crossref(new window)

Kaneko, J. J. 1980. Appendixes. In, Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals, 3rd ed. (Ed. J. J. Kaneko). New York, Academic Press.

Kanjanapruthipong, J., N. Bautoug, U. Kanto, S. Juttupornpong and W. Chaw-uthai. 2001. Cassava chips and ground corn as sources of total non-fiber carbohydrate in total mixed ration for dairy cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:206-210.

Khampa, S., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn, N. Nontaso and M. Wattiaux. 2006. Effects of urea level and sodium dl-malate in concentrate containing high cassava chip on ruminal fermentation efficiency, microbial protein synthesis in lactating dairy cows raised under tropical condition. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:837-844

Khampa, S., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn, N. Nontaso, M. A. Wattiaux and P. Rowlinson. 2006. Effect of levels of sodium DL-malate supplementation on ruminal fermentation efficiency of concentrates containing high levels of cassava chip in dairy steers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:368-375.

Lebzien, P. and F. P. Engling. 1995. On the influence of the 2 rations of grass-silage and concentrate mixtures with different sources of carbohydrates on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in dairy-cows. J. Anim. Physilogy and Anim. Nutr. Zeitschrift Fur Tierphysiologie Tierernahrung and Futtermittelkunde. 74:208-218

Lloyd, S. 1982. Blood characteristics and the nutrition of ruminants. Br. Vet. J. 138:70-85.

MaAllan, A. B. 1991. Optimizing the use of poor quality forage feed resources for ruminant production: supplementation with bypass nutrients In: Isotope and Related Techniques in Animal Production and Health. Proc. Of Symposium, 15-19 April, Joinly Organized by IAEA and FAO, Viena.

MaCarthy, R. D., Jr. T. H. Klusmeyer, J. L. Vicini, J. H. Clark and D. R. Nelson. 1989. Effects of sources of protein and carbohydrate on ruminal fermentation and passage of nutrients to the small intestine of lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:2002-2016. crossref(new window)

MacGregor, C. A., M. R. Stokes, W. H. Hoover, H. A. Leonard, L. L. Junkins, C. J. Sniffen and R. W. Mailman. 1983. Effect of dietary concentration of total nonstructural carbohydrate on energy and nitrogen metabolism and milk production of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 66:39-55. crossref(new window)

McAllister, T. A., R. C. Phillippe, L. M. Rode and K. L. Cheng. 1993. Effect of the protein matrix on the digestion of cereal grains by ruminal microorganisms. J. Anim. Sci. 71:205-212.

Mertens, D. R. 1977. Dietary fiber components: relationship to the rate and extent of ruminal digestion. Fed. Am. Sci. Exp. Biol. 36:187-192.

Mpairwe, D. R., E. N. Sabiiti and J. S. Mugerwa. 1998. Effect of dried Gliricidia sepium leaf supplement on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen retention in sheep fed dried KW4 elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) ad libitum. Agrofor. Syst. 41:139-150. crossref(new window)

National Research Council. 1981. Nutrient Requirements of Goats: Angora, dairy and meat goat in temperate and tropical countries. Natl. Acad. Sci. Washington, DC. USA.

Nolan, J. V. 1993. Nitrogen kinetics. In: Quantitative Aspecta of Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism. (Ed. R. C. Gutteridge and H. M. Shelton). CAB International, Willingford, UK. pp. 123-143.

Orskov, E. R. 1986. Starch digestion and utilization in ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 63:1624-1633.

Owens, F. N. and R. Zinn. 1988. Protein metabolism of ruminant animals. In: The ruminant animal digestive physiology and nutrition (Ed. D. C. Church). Waveland Press Inc., Prospect Hights, IL, USA.

Perdok, H. B. and R. A. Leng. 1990. Effect of supplementation with protein meal on the growth of cattle given a basal diet of untreated or ammoniated rice straw. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 3:269-279.

Radostits, O. M., C. C. Gay, D. C. Blood and K. W. Hinchcliff. 2000. Veterinary medicine, 9th ed. Harcourt Publishers Ltd., London. pp. 1417-1420.

Russell, J. R. and R. B. Hespell. 1981. Microbial rumen fermentation. J. Dairy Sci. 64:1153-1169. crossref(new window)

Sarwar, M., M. Ajmal Khan and Mahr-un-Nisa. 2003. Nitrogen retention and chemical composition of urea treated wheat straw ensiled with organic acids or fermentable carbohydrate. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1583-1592.

Saxena, S. K., D. E. Otterby, J. D. Donker and A. L. Good. 1971. Effects of feeding alkali-treatmented oat straw supplemented with soybean meal or non protein nitrogen on growth of lambs and on certain blood and rumen liquor parameters. J. Anim. Sci. 33:485-490.

SAS. 1990. $SAS/STAT^{TM}$ User's Guide (Release 6.03). SAS Inst., Inc. Cary, NC.

Schneider, B. H. and W. P. Flatt. 1975. The Evaluation of Feed through Digestibility Experiment. Athens: The University of Georgea Press. Georgia, USA.

Sommart, K., M. Wanapat, P. Rowlinson, D. S. Parker, P. Climee and S. Panishying. 2000. The use of cassava chips as an energy source for lactating dairy cows fed with rice straw. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:1094-1101.

Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometerial Approach. (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.

Sutton, J. D., S. V. Morant, J. A. Bines, D. J. Napper and D. I. Givens. 1993. Effect of altering the starch: fibre ratio in the concentrates on hay intake and milk production by Friesian cows. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb). 120:379-390. crossref(new window)

Turner, K. E., S. Wildeus and J. R. Collins. 2005. Intake, performance, and blood parameters in young goats offered high forage diets of lespedeza or alfalfa hay. Small Rumin. Res. 59:15-20. crossref(new window)

Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant, second ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Wanapat, M. 2003. Manipulation of cassava cultivation and utilization to improve protein to energy biomass for livestock feeding in the tropics. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:463-472.

Wanapat, M. and O. Pimpa. 1999. Effect of ruminal NH3-N levels on ruminal fermentaion, purine derivatives,digestibility and rice straw intake in swamp buffaloes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 12:904-907.

Wanapat, M. and S. Khampa. 2007. Effect of levels of supplementation of concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip on rumen ecology, microbial n supply and digestibility of nutrients in beef cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:75-81.

West, H. J. 1996. Maternal under-nutrition during late pregnancy in sheep. Its relationship to maternal condition, gestation length, hepatic physiology and glucose metabolism. Br. J. Nutr. 75:593-605. crossref(new window)

Zinn, R. A. and E. J. DePeters. 1991. Comparative feeding value of tapioca pellets for feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 69:4726-4733.

Zinn, R. A. and F. N. Owens. 1986. A rapid procedure for purine measurement and its use for estimating net ruminal protein synthesis. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 66:157-166. crossref(new window)