Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Bioefficacy of Lysine from L-lysine Sulfate and L-lysine⋅HCl for 10 to 20 kg Pigs
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Bioefficacy of Lysine from L-lysine Sulfate and L-lysine⋅HCl for 10 to 20 kg Pigs
Liu, M.; Qiao, S.Y.; Wang, X.; You, J.M.; Piao, X.S.;
  PDF(new window)
The objective of this study was to compare the bioefficacy of L-lysine sulfate relative to L-lysineHCl for 10 to 20 kg pigs. Two experiments were conducted to determine the bioefficacy of the two sources of lysine using daily gain, feed conversion, plasma urea nitrogen and nitrogen retention as the response criteria. In experiment 1, 168 crossbred barrows ( White), weaned at d (kg body weight), were allotted to one of seven dietary treatments in a (two lysine lysine levels) factorial arrangement of treatments with an added negative control treatment group. The basal diet was based on corn, peanut meal and soybean meal and provided 0.67% lysine. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3% lysine equivalents supplied from either L-lysine sulfate or L-lysineHCl. Each treatment was fed to six pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. The trial lasted 21 days. The relative bioefficacy value of lysine in L-lysine sulfate using daily gain, feed conversion and plasma urea nitrogen as response criteria was 1.01, 1.05 and 1.04 of the lysine in L-lysineHCl, respectively. In experiment 2, 42 crossbred ( White) pigs ( kg body weight) were housed in stainless steel metabolism cages for 10 d and fed the seven diets used in the nitrogen-balance trial. The relative bioefficacy value of L-lysine sulfate was estimated to be 0.95 as effective as L-lysineHCl for nitrogen retention on an equimolar basis. The t-test analysis revealed that bioefficacy of lysine in L-lysine sulfate was not significantly different from lysine in L-lysineHCl, which was set at 1.00. In conclusion, L-lysine sulfate can be used instead of L-lysineHCl to fortify lysine-deficient diets fed to 10 to 20 kg pigs.
Pigs;L-lysine Sulfate;L-lysine⋅EHCl;Bioefficacy;Nitrogen Retention;Performance;
 Cited by
Comparison of Synthetic Lysine Sources on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention in Weaning Pigs,Ju, W.S.;Yun, M.S.;Jang, Y.D.;Choi, H.B.;Chang, J.S.;Lee, H.B.;Oh, H.K.;Kim, Y.Y.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2008. vol.21. 1, pp.90-96 crossref(new window)
AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis (15th edition). Assoc. Offic. Anal. Chem. Washington, DC.

Baker, D. H. 1986. Problems and pitfalls in animal experiments designed to establish dietary requirements for essential nutrients. J. Nutr. 116:2339-2349.

Brown, J. A. and T. R. Cline. 1974. Urea excretion in the pig: an indicator of protein quality and amino acid requirements. J. Nutr. 104:542-545.

Chang, Yi-Ming and Hen-Wei Wei. 2005. The effects of dietary lyisne deficiency on muscle protein turnover in postweanling pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1326-1335.

Coma, J., D. Carrion and D. R. Zimmerman. 1995. Use of plasma urea nitrogen as a rapid response criterion to determine the lysine requirement of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:472-481.

Emmert, J. L. and H. R. Pope. 2000. Comparing $Biolys^{\circledR}$ 60 vs. Llysine⋅ HCl in broiler chickens up to 49 days of age. University of Arkansas, USA. Trial Report: 04.53.98003.

Figueroa, J. L., A. J. Lewis, P. S. Miller, R. L. Fischer, R. S. Gomez and R. M. Diedrichsen. 2002. Nitrogen metabolism and growth performance of gilts fed standard corn-soybean meal diets or low-crude protein, amino acid-supplemented diets. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2911-2919.

Heugten, E. V. and B. Frederick. 2000. The effect of $Biolys^{\circledR}$ 60 on performance of weanling pigs. Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. Trial Report: 04.63.01001.

Huyghebaert, G. 1993. Comparison of DL-methionine and methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid in broilers by using multi-exponential regression models. Br. Poult. Sci. 34:351-359. crossref(new window)

Jackson, M. 2001. A closer look at lysine sources: L-lysine sulfate plus fermentation co-products. Feed Int. 22:18-20.

Kircher, M. and W. Pfefferle. 2001. The fermentative production of L-lysine as an animal feed additive. Chemosphere 43:27-31. crossref(new window)

Kumta, U. S. and A. E. Harper. 1961. Amino acid balance and imbalance: effects of dietary additions of amino acids on food intake and blood urea concentration of rats fed low-protein diets containing fibrin. J. Nutr. 74:139-147.

Littell, R. C., P. R. Henry, A. J. Lewis and C. B. Ammerman. 1997. Estimation of relative bioavailability of nutrients using SAS procedures. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2672-2683.

Mavromichalis, I., D. M. Webel, J. L. Emmert, R. L. Moser and D. H. Baker. 1998. Limiting order of amino acids in a low-protein corn-soybean meal-whey-based diet for nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2833-2837.

Neme, R., L. F. T. Albino, H. S. Rostagno, R. J. B. Rodrigueiro and R. S. Toledo. 2001. Bioavailability determination of lysine sulfate and lysine HCI with broiler chickens. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 30:1750-1759. crossref(new window)

National Research Council. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10th Ed., National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Nyachoti, C. M., F. O. Omogbenigun, M. Rademacher and G. Blank. 2006. Performance responses and indicators of gastrointestinal health in early-weaned pigs fed low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets. J. Anim. Sci. 84:125-134.

Rodehutscord, M., F. Borchert, Z. Gregus and E. Pfeffer. 2000. Availability and utilization of free lysine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): 2. Comparison of L-lysine⋅HCl and L-lysine sulphate. Aquaculture 187:177-183. crossref(new window)

Rostagno, H. S. 1999. Comparison of $Biolys^{\circledR}$ 60 vs. L-lysine⋅HCl in broiler chickens. Departamento de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Trial Report: 04.53.98001

Smiricky-Tjardes, M. R., I. Mavromichalis, D. M. Albin, J. E. Wubben, M. Rademacher and V. M. Gabert. 2004. Bioefficacy of L-lysine sulfate compared with feed-grade L-lysine⋅HCl in young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 82:2610-2614.

SAS Institute Inc. 2000. SAS/STAT User's Guide: Version 8th edn. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina.

Susenbeth, A., T. Dickel, A. Diekenhorst and D. Hohler. 1999. The effect of energy intake, genotype, and body weight on protein retention in pigs when dietary lysine is the first-limiting factor. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2985-2989.

Van Kleef, D. J., K. Deuring and P. Van Leeuwen. 1994. A new method of faeces collection in the pig. Lab. Anim. 28:78-97. crossref(new window)

Zimmermann, B., R. Mosenthin, M. Rademacher, P. B. Lynch and E. Esteve-Garcia. 2005. Comparative studies on the relative efficacy of DL-methionine and liquid methionine hydroxy analogue in growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1003-1010.