Apple, J. K., M. E. Dikeman, J. E. Minton, R. M. McMurphy, M. R. Fedde, D. E. Leith and J. A. Unruh. 1995. Effects of restraint and isolation stress and epidural blockade on endocrine and blood metabolite status, muscle glycogen metabolism and incidence of dark-cutting longissimus muscle of sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2295-2307.
Ashmore, C. R., W. Parker and L. Doerr. 1972. Respiration of mitochondria isolated from dark-cutting beef: postmortem changes. J. Anim. Sci. 34:46-48.
Axelrod, J. and T. D. Reisine. 1984. Stress hormones: Their interaction and regulation. Science (Wash DC) 224:452.
Broom, D. M. and K. G. Johnson. 1993. Stress and animal welfare. Chapman and Hall, London, UK.
Broom, D. M., J. A. Goode, S. J. Hall, D. M. Lloyd and R. E. Parrot. 1996. Hormonal and physiological effects of a 15 h road journey in sheep: comparison with the responses to loading, handling and penning in the absence of transport. Br. Vet. J. 152:593-605.
Bond, J. J., L. A. Can and R. D. Warner. 2004. The effect of exercise stress, adrenaline injection and electrical stimulation on changes in quality attributes and proteins in Semimbranosus muscle of lamb. Meat Sci. 68:469-477.
Bouton, P. E., P. V. Harris and W. R. Shorthose. 1971. Effect of ultimate pH upon the water-holding capacity and tenderness of mutton. J. Food Sci. 36:435-439.
Chrystall, B. B., C. E. Devie, M. Snodgrass and S. Ellery. 1982. Tenderness of exercise-stressed lambs. NZ. J. Agric. Res. 25:331-336.
Cross, H. R., R. L. West and T. R. Dutson. 1980, 1981. Comparisons of methods for measuring sarcomere length in beef semitendinosus muscle. Meat Sci. 5:261-266.
Dantzer, R. and P. Mormede. 1983. Stress in farm animals: a need for re-evaluation. J. Anim. Sci. 57:6-18.
Drummond, G. I., J. P. Harwood and C. A. Powell. 1969. Studies on the activation of phosphorylase in skeletal muscle by contraction and epinephrine. J. Biol. Chem. 244:4235-4240.
Egbert, W. R. and D. P. Cornforth. 1986. Factors influencing color of dark cutting beef muscle. J. Food Sci. 51:57-59, 65.
Forrest, J. C., R. A. Merkell and D. L. Mackintosh. 1964. Influence of preslaughter treatment upon certain physical and chemical characteristics of ovine muscles. J. Anim. Sci. 23: 551.
Gregory, N. G. and T. Grandin. 1998. Animal welfare and Meat Science. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Guise, H. J. and R. H. C. Penny. 1989. Factors influencing the welfare and carcass and meat quality of pigs. 1. The effects of stocking density in transport and the use of electric goads. Anim. Prod. 49:511-515.
Hamm, R. 1981. Post-mortem changes in muscle affecting the quality of comminuted meat products. In: (Ed. R. P. Lawrie). Development in Meat Science, Vol. 2. London, England. Applied Sci. Pub. pp. 93-124.
Jin, H. J., B. Y. Park, J. C. Park, I. H. Hwang, S. S. Lee, S. H. Yeon, C. D. Kim, C. Y. Cho, Y. K. Kim, K. S. Min, S. T. Feng, Z. D. Li, C. K. Park and C. I. Kim. 2006. The effects of stress related genes on carcass traits and meat quality in pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:280-285.
Kannan, G., B. Kouakou, T. H. Terrill and S. Gelaye. 2003. Endocrine, blood metabolite and meat quality changes in goats as influenced by short-term, preslaughter stress. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1499-1507.
Knowles, T. G., S. N. Brown, P. D. Warriss, A. J. Phillips, S. K. Dolan, P. Hunt, J. E. Ford, J. E. Edwards and P. E. Watkins. 1995. Effects on sheep of transport by road for up to 24 h. Vet. Record. 136:431-438.
Koohmaraie, M. 1988. The role of endogenous proteases in meat tenderness. Reciprocal. Meat Conference. 41:89-77.
Lawrie, R. A. 1958. Physiological stress in relation to dark-cutting beef. J. Sci. Food Agric. 11:721-727.
Lawrie, R. A. 1998. Lawrie's Meat Science. 6th edition. Woodhead publishing Limited.
Ledward, D. A. 1985. Post-slaughter influences on the formation metmyoglobin in beef muscles. Meat Sci. 15:149-171.
MacDougall, D. B. and S. J. Jones. 1981. Translucency and colour defects of dark-cutting meat and their detraction. In: (Ed. D. E. Hood and P. V. Tarrant) The problem of dark-cutting in beef. p. 328. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague, The Netherlands.
Marsh, B. B., J. V. Lochner, G. Takahashi and D. D. Kragness. 1980-1981. Effects of early post-mortem pH and temperature on beef tenderness. Meat Sci. 5:479-483.
Nelson, R. J. and D. L. Drazen. 2000. Seasonal changes in stress Reponses. In: Encyclopedia of Stress, Volume 3. Academic Press. USA.
Rollin, B. E. 1995. Farm animal welfare. Iowa State University Press, Ames Iowa, USA.
Rosell, S. and B. Saltin. 1973. In: The structure and function of muscle (Ed. G. H. Bourne), Vol III. Academic Press, New York, p.186.
Ruiz-De-La-Torre, J. L., A. Velarde, A. Diestre, M. Gispert, S. J. G. Gall, D. M. Broom and X. Manteca. 2001. Effects of vehicle movements during transport on the stress responses and meat quality of sheep. The Vet. Record. 24:227-229.
Parrott, R. F., B. H. Misson and C. F. Dela. 1994. Differential stressor effects on the concentrations of cortisol, prolactin and catecholamines in the blood of sheep. Res. Vet. Sci. 56:234-239.
Purchas, R. W. 1988. Some experiences with dark-cutting beef in New Zealand. In: (Ed. S. U. Fabiansson, W. R. Shorthose and R. D. Warner) Dark-cutting in cattle and sheep. Proc. Aust. Workshop p. 42. Aust. Meat Lives. Res. Develop. Corp., Sydney South, NSW.
Purchas, R. W. 1990. An assessment of the role of pH differences in determining the relative tenderness of meat from bulls and steers. Meat Sci. 27:129-140.
SAS. 1993. Statistical Analysis System. SAS/STAT Users guide, Volume 2, version 6, Cary, NC
Scharma, J. W., W. van Der Hel, A. M. Henken, J. Gorssen and M. W. A. Verstefen. 1994. Transport of farm animals: the thermal environment. 40th ICoMST, pp. 85-96, The Hague, Netherlands.
Swatland, H. J. 1982. The challenges of improving meat quality. Canadian J. Anim. Sci. 62:15-24.
Tarrant, P. V. 1989. Animal behavior and environment in the darkcutting condition in beef- A review. Irish J. Food Sci. Technol. 13:1-21.
Tarrant, V. and T. Grandin. 1993. Transportation of cattle by road. In: Livestock handling and Transport (Ed. T. Grandin). Wallingford, CAB International. pp. 109-126.
Thompson, J. M., W. J. O'Halloran, D. M. J. McNeil, N. J. Jackson-Hope and T. J. May. 1987. The effect of fasting on live weight and carcass characteristics in lambs. Meat Sci. 20: 293-309.
Warriss, P. D., S. N. Brown, E. A. Bevis, S. C. Kestin and C. S. Young. 1987. Influence of food withdrawal at various times preslaughter on carcass yield and meat quality in sheep. J. the Sci. Food Agric. 39:325-334.
Warriss, P. D., S. C. Kestin, C. S. Young, E. A. Bevis and S. N. Brown. 1990. Effect of preslaughter transport on carcass yield and indices of meat quality in sheep. J. Sci. Food and Agric. 51:517-523.
Warriss, P. D. 1993. Ante-mortem factors which influence carcass shrinkage and meat quality. 39th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology. Calgary, Alberta, Canada, August 1-6, pp. 51-65
Watanabe, A., C. C. Daly and C. E. Devine. 1996. The effects of the ultimate pH of meat on tenderness changes during ageing. Meat Sci. 42:67-78.