JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The Low Feed Intake in Newly-weaned Pigs: Problems and Possible Solutions
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
The Low Feed Intake in Newly-weaned Pigs: Problems and Possible Solutions
Dong, G.Z.; Pluske, J.R.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The low feed intake immediately after weaning is responsible for villous atrophy and reduced growth rate in newly-weaned pigs. Overcoming this drawback will produce beneficial results for swine producers, and this warrants an understanding of the factors affecting the feed intake in newly-weaned pigs. In fact, a plethora of factors exert influences on feed intake in newly-weaned pigs, and these factors encompass health status, creep feeding, weaning age, mixing of litters, environment, dietary nutrient level and balance, palatability of ingredients, forms of diet presentation, water supply and quality, and stockmanship. Due to the complexity of the factors that affect the feed intake of weaned pigs, a comprehensive approach should be adopted to overcome the low feed intake problem right after weaning. It warrants mention that it is almost impossible to completely restore the feed intake just after weaning to pre-weaning level in terms of energy intake through dietary means which are available for being practiced economically and/or technically in current swine production. However, a refined dietary regime will certainly alleviate the low feed intake problem in the immediate postweaning period.
 Keywords
Feed Intake;Villous Atrophy;Growth;Weaning;Piglets;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Effect of Nipple Angle on Water Disappearance by Pigs,;;;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2008. vol.21. 1, pp.120-123 crossref(new window)
2.
Differences in Microbial Activities of Faeces from Weaned and Unweaned Pigs in Relation to In vitro Fermentation of Different Sources of Inulin-type Oligofructose and Pig Feed Ingredients,;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2007. vol.20. 9, pp.1444-1452 crossref(new window)
3.
Effects of Particle Size of Barley on Intestinal Morphology, Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Pigs,;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2007. vol.20. 11, pp.1738-1745 crossref(new window)
4.
Dietary Supplementation with Acanthopanax senticosus Extract Modulates Gut Microflora in Weaned Piglets,;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2008. vol.21. 9, pp.1330-1338 crossref(new window)
5.
Colostrum Protein Isolate Increases Gut and Whole Body Growth and Plasma IGF-I in Neonatal Pigs,;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2011. vol.24. 5, pp.670-677 crossref(new window)
 References
1.
Aherne, F. X. and J. J. Kennelly. 1985. Oilseed meals for livestock feeding. In Recent Developments in Pig Nutrition (D. J. A. Cole and W. Haresign). Butterworths, London, pp. 278-296.

2.
Aherne, F. X. and J. M. Bell. 1990. Canola seed: full fat. In Nontraditional Feed Sources for Use in Swine Production (P. A. Thacker and R. N. Kirkwood). Butterworths, Boston, pp. 79-94.

3.
Barber, J., P. H. Brooks and J. L. Carpenter. 1989. The effects of water delivery rate on the voluntary food intake, water use and performance of early-weaned pigs from 3 to 6 weeks of age. In The Voluntary Food Intake of Pigs. Occasional Publications No. 13, Br. Soc. Anim. Prod. pp. 103-104.

4.
Baxter, M. R. 1991. The design of the feeding environment for pigs. In Manipulating Pig Production. (Ed. E. S. Batterham). Aust. Pig Sci. Assoc. Victoria, pp. 150-158.

5.
Bell, J. M. 1984. Nutrients and toxicants in rapeseed meal: a review. J. Anim. Sci. 58:996-1010.

6.
Bjork, A. K. K. 1989. Is social stress in pigs a detrimental factor to health and growth that can be avoided by amperzoide treatment. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 23:39-47. crossref(new window)

7.
Blackshaw, J. W., D. A. V. Bodero and A. W. Blackshaw. 1987. The effect of group composition on behaviour and performance of weaned pigs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 19:73-80. crossref(new window)

8.
Brooks, P. H. 1994. Water-forgotten nutrient and novel delivery system. In Biotechnology in the Feed Industry, Proceedings of Alltech's Tenth Annual Symposium (P. Lyons and K. A. Jaques). Nottingham University Press, Loughborough, pp. 211-234.

9.
Brooks, P. H., S. J. Russel and J. L. Carpenter. 1984. Water intake of weaned piglets from three to seven weeks old. Vet. Rec. 115:513-518. crossref(new window)

10.
Bruininx, E. M. A. M., C. M. C. van der Peet-Schwering and J. W. Schrama. 2001. Individual feed intake of group-housed weaned pigs and health status. In The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management (Ed. M. A. Varley and J. Wiseman). CAB International, Oxon, pp. 113-122.

11.
Bruininx, E. M. A. M., G. P. Binnendijk, C. M. C. van der Peet- Schwering, J. W. Schrama, L. A. den Hartog, H. Everts and A. C, Beynen. 2002a. Effect of creep feed consumption on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1413-1418.

12.
Bruininx, E. M. A. M., M. J. W. Heetkamp, D. van den Bogaart, C. M. C. van der Peet-Schwering, A. C. Beynen, H. Everts, L. A. den Hartog and J. W. Schrama. 2002b. A prolonged photoperiod improves feed intake and energy metabolism of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1736-1745

13.
Brumm, M. C. and D. P. Shelton. 1986. Nursery drinkers-how many? Nebraska Swine Report EC86-219, University of Nebraska Coop. Ext., Lincoln, p. 5.

14.
Brumm, M. C. and H. W. Gonyou. 2001. Effects of facility design on behavior and feed and water intake. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 499-517.

15.
Brumm, M. C., M. Ellist, L. J. Johnston, D. W. Rozeboom, D. R. Zimmerman and the NCR-89 Committee on Swine Management. 2001. Interaction of swine nursery and grow-finish space allocations on performance. J. Anim. Sci. 79:1967-1972.

16.
Cera, K. R., D. C. Mahan, R. F. Cross, G. A. Reinhart and R. E. Whitmoyer. 1988. Effect of age, weaning and postweaning diet on small intestinal growth and jejunal morphology in young swine. J. Anim. Sci. 66:574-584.

17.
Chiba, L. I. 2001. Protein supplements. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 803-837.

18.
Cunha, T. J. 1977. Swine Feeding and Nutrition. Academic Press, New York.

19.
Coffey, R. D. and G. L. Cromwell. 1995. The impact of environment and antimicrobial agents on the growth response of early-weaned pigs to spray-dried porcine plasma. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2532-2539.

20.
Corring, T. 1980. The adaptation of digestive enzymes to the diet: its physiological significance. Rep. Nutr. Devel. 20:1217-1235. crossref(new window)

21.
Corring, T., A. Aumaitre and G. Durand. 1978. Development of digestive enzymes in the piglet from birth to 8 weeks. I. Pancreas and pancreatic enzymes. Nutr. Meta. 22:231-241. crossref(new window)

22.
Cranwell, P. D. 1977. Acid and pepsin secretion in young pigs reared solely by the sow or supplemented with solid food and weaned at 21d. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 36:142A.

23.
Cranwell, P. D. 1985. The development of acid and pepsin (EC 3.4.23.1) secretory capacity in the pig: effects of age and weaning. 1. Studies in anaesthetized pig. Br. J. Nutr. 54:305-320. crossref(new window)

24.
Cranwell, P. D. and S. J. Stuart. 1984. The Effect of diet and liveweight on gastric secretion in the young pig. Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. 15:669

25.
Cromwell, G. 2001. Antimicrobial and promicrobial agents. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 401-426.

26.
Davis, M. E., C. V. Maxwell, D. C. Brown, B. Z. de Rodas, Z. B. Johnson, E. B. Kegley, D. H. Hellwig and R. A. Dvorak. 2002. Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharides and (or) pharmacological additions of copper sulfate on growth performance and immunocompetence of weanling and growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2887-2894.

27.
Davis, M. E., S. C. Sears, J. K. Apple, C. V. Maxwell and Z. B. Johnson. 2006. Effect of weaning age and commingling after the nursery phase of pigs in a wean-to-finish facility on growth, humoral and behavioral indicators of well-being. J. Anim. Sci. 84:743-756.

28.
de Rodas, B. Z., K. S. Sohn, C. V. Maxwell and L. J. Spicer. 1995. Plasma protein for pigs weaned at 19 to 24 days of age: effect on performance and plasma insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone, insulin, and glucose concentrations. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3657-3665.

29.
de Passille, A. M. B., G. Pelletier, J. Menard and J. Morisset. 1989. Relationships of weight gain and behavior to digestive organ weight and enzyme activities in piglets. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2921-2929.

30.
Deprez, P., P. Deroose, C. Van der Hende, E. Muylle and W. Oyaert. 1987. Liquid versus dry feeding in weaned piglets: the influence on small intestinal morphology. J. Vet. Med. B34:254-259.

31.
D'Mello, J. P. F. 2003. Adverse effects of amino acids. In Amino Acids in Animal Nutrition, 2nd Edition (Ed. J. P. F. D'Mell0). CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 125-142.

32.
Dove, C. R. 1995. The effect of copper level on nutrient utilization of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:166-171.

33.
Dritz, S. S., M. D. Tobach, J. L. Nelssen, R. D. Goodband and L. J. Kats. 1993. Optimum dried whey level in starter pig diets containing spray-dried blood meal and comparison of avian and bovine spray-dried blood meals. J. Anim. Sci. 71 (Suppl. 1):57

34.
Dunsford, B. P., D. A. Knabe and W. E. Haensly. 1989. Effect of dietary soybean meal on the microscopic anatomy of the small intestine in the early-weaned pig. J. Anim. Sci. 67:1855-1863.

35.
Dybkjaer, L., A. P. Jacobsen, F. A. Togersen and H. D. Poulsen. 2006. Eating and drinking activity of newly weaned piglets: Effects of individual characteristics, social mixing, and addition of extra zinc to the feed. J. Anim. Sci. 84:702-711.

36.
Edge, H. L., J. A. Dalby, P. Rowlinson and M. A. Varley. 2005. The effect of pellet diameter on the performance of young pigs. Livest. Prod. Sci. 97:203-209. crossref(new window)

37.
Edmonds, M. S., B. E. Arentson, W. A. Nipper and D. L. Froe II. 1997. Segregated early weaning: effects of raising pigs on-site and off-site with and without vaccination on performance and economics. J. Anim. Sci. 75 (Suppl. 1):195.

38.
Ermer, P. M., P. S. Miller and A. J. Lewis. 1994. Diet preference and meal patterns of weanling pigs offered diets containing either spray-dried porcine plasma or dried skim milk. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1548-1554.

39.
Ettle, T. and F. X. Roth. 2004. Specific dietary selection for tryptophan by the piglet. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1115-1121.

40.
Forbes, J. M. 1995. Voluntary food intake and diet selection. CAB International, Wallingford.

41.
Forbes, J. M. 1999. Natural feeding behaviour and feed selection. In Regulation of Food Intake (Ed. D. van der Heide, E. A. Huisman, E. Kanis, J. W. M. Osse and M. W. A. Verstegen). CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 3-12.

42.
Friend, T. H., D. A. Knabe and T. D. Tanksley. 1983. Behaviour and performance of pigs regrouped by three different methods at weaning. J. Anim. Sci. 57:1406-1411.

43.
Gatnau, R., C. Cain, R. Arentson and D. Zimmerman. 1993. Spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as an alternative ingredient in diets of weanling pigs. Pig News Info. 14:157N-159N.

44.
Gentry, J. L., J. W. G. M. Swinkels, M. D. Lindemann and J. W. Schrama. 1997. Effect of hemoglobin and immunisation status on energy metabolism of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1032-1040.

45.
Glatz, P. C. 2001. Effect of different lighting sources on behavior and growth of weanling pigs. Asian-Aust J. Anim. Sci. 14:280-287.

46.
Gonyou, K. A., K. A. Rohde and A. C. Echeverri. 1986. Effects of sorting pigs by weight on behavior and productivity after mixing. J. Anim. Sci. 63 (Suppl. 1):163-164.

47.
Goodband, R. D., M. D. Tobach and J. L. Nelssen. 1993. Feeding the weaned pig. In Advances in Pork Production, Proceedings of the 1993 Banff Pork Seminar, Vol. 4. (Ed. G. R. Foxcroft). University of Alberta, Edmonton, pp. 1-15.

48.
Goodband, R. D., M. D. Tobach, S. S. Dritz and J. L. Nelssen. 1995. Practical nutrition for the segregated early weaned pig. In Proc. of Saskatchewan Pork Industry Symp., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, pp. 15-25.

49.
Grinstend, G. S., R. D. Goodband, S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach, J. L. Nelsssen, J. C. Woodworth and M. Molitor. 2000. Effects of a whey protein product and spray-dried animal plasma on growth performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 78:647-657.

50.
Hampson, D. J. 1986. Alterations in piglet small intestinal structure at weaning. Res. Vet. Sci. 40:32-40.

51.
Hampson, D. J. and D. E. Kidder. 1986. Influence of creep feeding and weaning on brush border enzyme activities in the piglet small intestine. Res. Vet. Sci. 40:24-31.

52.
Han, Y. K., P. A. Thacker and J. S. Yang. 2006. Effects of the duration of liquid feeding on performance and nutrient digestibility in weaned pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:396-401.

53.
Hancock, J. D. and K. C. Behnke. 2001. Use of ingredient and diet processing technologies (grinding, mixing, pelleting, and extruding) to produce quality feeds for pigs. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 469-497.

54.
Henry, Y. and B. Seve. 1993. Feed intake and dietary amino acid balance in growing pigs with special reference to lysine, tryptophan and threonine. Pig News Info. 14:35N-43N.

55.
Hill, G. M., G. L. Cromwell, T. D. Crenshaw, C. R. Dove, R. C. Ewan, D. A. Knabe, A. J. Lewis, G. W. Libal, D. C. Mahan, G. C. Shurson, L. L. Southern and T. L. Veum. 2000. Growth promotion effects and plasma changes from feeding high dietary concentrations of zinc and copper to weanling pigs (regional study). J. Anim. Sci. 78:1010-1016.

56.
Hollis, G. R., S. D. Carter, T. R. Cline, T. D. Crenshaw, G. L. Cromwell, G. M. Hill, S. W. Kim, A. J. Lewis, D. C. Mahan, P. S. Miller, H. H. Stein and T. L. Veum. 2005. Effects of replacing pharmaceutical levels of dietary zinc oxide with lower dietary levels of various organic zinc sources fro weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2123-2129.

57.
Hsia, L. C. 2005. The effect of spry-dried porcine plasma and tryptophan on feed intake and performance of weanling pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:75-79

58.
Jepson, M. M., J. M. Pell, P. C. Bates and D. J. Millward. 1986. The effects of endotoxemia on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle and liver of fed and fasted rats. Biochem. J. 235:329-336.

59.
Jensen, A. H. 1966. Pelleting rations fro swine. Feedstuffs 38: 24-27.

60.
Kats, L. J., J. L. Nelssen, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, T. L. Weeden, S. S. Dritz, J. A. Hansen and K. G. Frisen. 1994. The effects of spray-dried blood meal on growth performance of the early-weaned pig. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2860-2869.

61.
Kelly, D., J. A. Smith and K. J. McCracken. 1990. Effect of creep feeding on structural and functional changes of the gut of early-weaned pigs. Res. Vet. Sci. 48:350-356.

62.
Kelly, D., J. A. Smith and K. J. McCracken. 1991a. Digestive development in the early-weaned pig. I. Effect of continuous nutrient supply on the development of the digestive tract and on changes in digestive enzyme activity during the first week post-weaning. Br. J. Nutr. 65:169-180. crossref(new window)

63.
Kelly, D., J. A. Smith and K. J. McCracken. 1991b. Digestive development in the early-weaned pig. II. Effect of level of food intake on digestive enzyme activity during the immediate post-weaning period. Br. J. Nutr. 65:181-188. crossref(new window)

64.
Kelly, K. W., S. Kent and R. Dantzer. 1993. Why sick animals don't grow: an immunological explanation. In Growth of the Pig (Ed. G. R. Hollis). CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 119-132. crossref(new window)

65.
Kenworthy, R. and W. D. Allen. 1966. Influence of diet and bacteria on small intestine morphology, with special reference to early weaning and Escherichia coli. J. Comp. Patho. 76:291-298. crossref(new window)

66.
Kim, Y. Y., D. Y. Kil, H. K. Oh and In K. Han. 2005. Acidifer as an alternative material to antibiotics in animal feed. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1048-1060. crossref(new window)

67.
Klasing, K. C. 1988. Nutritonal aspects of leukocytic cytokines. J. Nutr. 118:1436-1446.

68.
Knabe, D. A., T. D. Tansksley, Jr. and J. H. Hesby. 1979. Effects of lysine, crude fiber and free gossypol in cottonseed meal on the performance of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 49:134-141.

69.
Koopmans, S. J., A. C. Guzik, J. van der Meulen, R. Dekker, J. Kogut, B. J. Kerr and L. L. Southern. 2006. Effects of supplemental L-tryptophan on serotonin, cortisol, intestinal integrity, and behavior in weanling piglets. J. Anim. Sci. 84:963-971.

70.
Kornegay, E. T. and D. R. Notter. 1984. Effects of floor space and number of pigs per pen on performance. Pig News Info. 5:23-33.

71.
Kornegay, E. T., M. D. Liendemann and V. Rarindran. 1993. Effects of dietary lysine levels on performance and immune response of weanling pigs housed at two floor space allowances. J. Anim. Sci. 71:552-556

72.
Kyriazakis, I., G. C. Emmans and C. T. Whittemore. 1990. Diet selection in pigs: choices made by growing pigs given foods of different protein concentrations. Anim. Prod. 51:189-199. crossref(new window)

73.
Le Dividich, J. and P. Herpine. 1994. Effects of climatic conditions on the performance, metabolism and health status of weaned pigs. Lives. Prod. Sci. 38:79-90. crossref(new window)

74.
Lepine, A. J., D. C. Mahan and Y. K. Chung. 1991. Growth performance of weanling pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets with or without dried whey at various L-lysine.HCl levels. J. Anim. Sci. 69:2026-2032. crossref(new window)

75.
Li, D. F., J. L. Nelssen, P. G. Reddy, F. Blecha, J. D. Hancock, G. L. Allee, R. D. Goodband and R. D. Klemm. 1990. Transient hypersensitivity to soybean meal in early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1790-1799.

76.
Li, D. F., J. L. Nelssen, P. G. Reddy, F. Blecha, R. D. Klemm, G. W. Giesting, J. W. Hancock, G. L. Allee and R. D. Goodband. 1991a. Measuring suitbility of soybean products for earlyweaned pigs with immunological critirea. J. Anim. Sci. 69:3299-3307.

77.
Li, D. F., J. L. Nelssen, P. G. Reddy, F. Blecha, R. D. Klemm and R. D. Goodband. 1991b. Interrelationship between hypersensitivity to soybean proteins and growth performance in early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 69:4062-4069.

78.
Litrap, D. O. and M. G. Hogberg. 1991. Physical forms of feed: feed processing and feeder design and operation. In Swine Nutrition (Ed. E. R. Miller, D. E. Ullrey and A. J. Lewis). Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, pp. 373-386.

79.
Mahan, D. C. 1992. Efficacy of dried whey and its lactalbumin and lactose components at two dietary lysine levels on postweaning pig performance and nitrogen balance. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2182-2187.

80.
Mahan, D. C., N. D. Fastinger and J. C. Peters. 2004. Effects of diet complexity and dietary lactose levels during three starter phases on postweaning pig performance. J. Anim. Sci. 82:2790-2797.

81.
Makkink, C. A., G. P. Negulescu, G. X. Qin and M. W. A. Verstegen. 1994. Effect of dietary protein source on feed intake, growth, pancreatic enzyme activities and jejunal morphology in newly-weaned piglets. Br. J. Nutr. 72:353-368. crossref(new window)

82.
Markkink, C. A., G. P. Negulescu, Q. Guixin and M. W. A. Verstegen. 1994. Effect of dietary protein source on feed intake, growth, pancreatic enzyme activities and jejunal morphology in early-weaned pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 72:353-368. crossref(new window)

83.
Mateos, G. G., F. Martın, M. A. Latorre, B. Vicente and R. Lazaro. 2006. Inclusion of oat hulls in diets for young pigs based on cooked maize or cooked rice. Anim. Sci. 82:57-64. crossref(new window)

84.
Maxwell, C. V., Jr. and S. D. Carter. 2001. Feeding the weaned pig. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 682-715.

85.
McConnell, J. C., J. C. Eargle and R. C. Waldorf. 1987. Effects of weaning weight, commingling, group size and room temperature on pig performance. J. Anim. Sci. 65:1201-1206.

86.
McGone, J. J. and S. E. Curtis. 1985. Behaviour and performance of weanling pigs in pens equipped with hide area. J. Anim. Sci. 60:20-24.

87.
McGone, J. J., W. F. Stanbury and L. F. Tribble. 1987. Effects of heat and social stressors and within-pen weight variation on young pig performance and agonistic behaviour. J. Anim. Sci. 65:456-462.

88.
McCracken, B. A., H. R. Gaskins, P. Ruwe-Kaiser, K. C. Klasing and D. E. Jewell. 1995. Diet-dependent and diet-independent metabolic responses underline growth stasis of pigs at weaning. J. Nutr. 125:2833-2845.

89.
McCracken, B. A., M. E. Spurlock, M. A. Roos and F. A. Zuckerann. 1999. Weaning anorexia may contribute to local inflammation in the piglet small intestine. J. Nutr. 129:613-619.

90.
McLaughlin, C. L., C. A. Baile, L. L. Buckholtz and S. K. Freeman. 1983. Preferred flavours and performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 56:1287-1293.

91.
Meunier-Salaun, M. C., M. Monnier, Y. Colleaux, B. Seve and Y. Henry. 1991. Impact of dietary tryptophan and behavioural type on behaviour, plasma cortisol, and brain metabolisms of young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 69:3689-3698.

92.
Miller, B. G., T. J. Newby, C. R. Stokes and F. J. Bourne. 1984a. Influence of diet on postweaning malabsorption and diarrhea in the pig. Res. Vet. Sci. 36:187-193.

93.
Miller, B. G., T. J. Newby, C. R. Stokes and F. J. Bourne. 1984b. Immune hypersensitivity and post-weaning diarrhoea in the pig. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 43:116A.

94.
Miller, B. G., P. S. James, M. W. Smith and F. J. Bourne. 1986. Effect of weaning on the capacity of pig intestine villi to digest and absorb nutrients. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 107:579-589. crossref(new window)

95.
Moon, H. K., In K. Han, H. K. Parmentier and J. W. Schrama. 1997. Effects of cell mediated immune response on energy metabolism in weanling piglets. In Procededings 14th symposium on Metabolism of Farm Animals (Ed. K. McCracken, E. F. Unsworth and A. R. G. Wylie). CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 143-146. crossref(new window)

96.
Mrosovsky, N., L. A. Molony, C. A. Conn and M. J. Kluger. 1989. Anorexic effects of interleukin-1 in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 257:R1315-1345.

97.
MWPS. 1991. Swine Housing and Equipment Handbook, 4th ed. Midwest Plan Service MWPS-8, Ames, IA.

98.
Nabuurrs, M. J. A. 1991. Etiologic and Pathogenic Studies on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea. PhD dissertation, State University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

99.
Nabuurrs, M. J. A., A. Hoogendoorn, E. J. van der Molden and A. L. M. Van Osta. 1993a. Villous height and crypt depth in weaned and unweaned pigs, reared under various circumstances in the Netherlands. Res. Vet. Sci. 55:78-84. crossref(new window)