JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Determination of Nutritive Value of Citrus Tree Leaves for Sheep Using In vitro Gas Production Technique
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Determination of Nutritive Value of Citrus Tree Leaves for Sheep Using In vitro Gas Production Technique
Karabulut, Ali; Canbolat, Onder; Ozkan, Cagri O.; Kamalak, Adem;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The nutritive values of leaves of Citrus grandis, Citrus aurantium, Citrus oranges, Citrus limon, and Citrus deliciosa were evaluated by chemical composition and in vitro gas production techniques. There were significant (p<0.001) differences among citrus species in terms of chemical composition. Crude protein (CP) contents ranged from 123.0 to 148.3 g/kg DM. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents were varied with species in the range 219.4-355.4 and 215.0-278.8 g/kg DM respectively. Condensed tannin (CT) contents were ranged from 5.9 to 10.2 g/kg DM. The PEG addition significantly (p<0.001) increased the gas production and some estimated parameters of citrus tree leaves. However, species showed variable responses to polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment. There were also significant (p<0.001) differences among species in terms of gas production and estimated parameters. The OMD and ME contents of citrus leaves without PEG supplementation were ranged from 66.5 to 73.3% and 9.8 to 10.9 MJ/kg DM respectively. The improvement in gas production, organic matter digestibility (OMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) with PEG emphasized the negative effect of tannins on digestibility. The increase (%) in the estimated OMD and ME contents ranged from 5.5 to 9.8% and 5.7 to 10.2% respectively. All citrus tree leaves studied in this experiment have potential nutritive values indicated by high crude protein content, OMD, ME and low fiber values.
 Keywords
Citrus Leaves;Condensed Tannin;Digestibility;Metabolizable Energy;PEG;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Feeding Acacia saligna to Sheep and Goats with or without the Addition of Urea or Polyethylene Glycol,;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2007. vol.20. 10, pp.1551-1556 crossref(new window)
2.
The Effects of Feeding Acacia saligna on Feed Intake, Nitrogen Balance and Rumen Metabolism in Sheep,;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2007. vol.20. 9, pp.1367-1373 crossref(new window)
 References
1.
Abdulrazak, S. A., T. Fujihara, J. K. Ondiek and E. Orskov. 2000. Nutritive evaluation of some Acacia tree leaves from Kenya. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 85:89-98. crossref(new window)

2.
Ammar, H., S. Lopez and J. S. Gonzalez. 2005. Assessment of the digestibility of some Mediterranean shrubs by in vitro techniques. Small Rum. Res. 119:323-331.

3.
AOAC-976.06. 1990. Official Method of Analysis. (15th.ed.) Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington, DC. USA.

4.
Barry, T. N. and S. J. Duncan. 1984. The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep. I. Voluntary intake. J. AOAC. 65:496-497.

5.
Barry, T. N., T. R. Manley and S. J. Duncan. 1986. The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep. 4. Site of carbohydrate and protein digestion as influenced by dietary reactive tannin concentration. Br. J. Nutr. 55:123-137. crossref(new window)

6.
Barry, T. N. 1987. Secondary compounds of forages: in Nutrition of Herbivores, (Ed. J. B. Hacker and J. H. Ternouth). A.P. Sydney pp. 91-120.

7.
Dalzell, S. A. and G. L. Kerven. 1998. A rapid method for the measurement of Leucaena spp. proanthocyanidins by the proanthocyanidin (Butanol-HCL) assay. J. Sci. Food. Agric. 78:405-416. crossref(new window)

8.
El-Shatnawi, M. K. and Y. M. Mohawesh. 2000. Seasonal chemical composition of saltbush in semiarid grassland of Jordan. J. Range Manage. 53:211-214. crossref(new window)

9.
Evitayani, L. W., A. Fariani, T. Ichinohe and T. Fujihara. 2004. Study on nutritive value of tropical forages in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(11):1518-1523.

10.
Fujihara, T. I. M. Osuga, S. A. Abdulrazak and T. T. Ichinohe. 2005. Chemical composition, degradation characteristics and effect of tannin on digestibility of some browse species from Kenya harvested during winter season. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18(1):54-60.

11.
Getachew, G., H. P. S. Makkar and K. Becker. 2000. Effect of polyethylene glycol on in vitro degradability of nitrogen and microbial protein synthesis from tannin-rich browse and herbaceous legumes. Br. J. Nutr. 84:73-83.

12.
Getachew, G, H. P. S. Makkar and K. Becker. 2002. Tropical browses: contents of phenolic compounds, in vitro gas production and stoichiometric relationship between short chain fatty acid and in vitro gas production. J. Agric. Sci. 139:341-352.

13.
Hernandez, F., J. Madrid, J. J. Ceron and M. A. Pilgar. 1998. Utilisation of lemon (Citrus limon) and Loquat (Eribotrya japonica) tree leaves alone or with NH3 treated straw for goats. J. Sci. Food Agric. 77:133-139. crossref(new window)

14.
Holecheck, J. L. 1984. Comparative contribution of grasses, forbs, and shrubs to the nutrition range ungulates. Rangelands. 6:261-263.

15.
Kamalak, A., O. Canbolat, Y. Gurbuz, A. Erol and O. Ozay. 2005b. Effect of maturity stage on the chemical composition, in vitro and in situ dry matter degradation of tumbleweed hay (Gundelia tournefortii L). Small Rum. Res. 58:149-156. crossref(new window)

16.
Kamalak, A., O. Canbolat, M. Sahin, Y. Gurbuz, E. Ozkose and C. O. Ozkan. 2005a. The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000) supplementation on in vitro gas production kinetics of leaves from tannin containing trees. S. A. J. Anim. Sci. 35(4):229-237.

17.
Kumar, R. and M. Sing. 1984. Tannins: their adverse role in ruminant nutrition. J. Agric. Food Chem. 32:447-453. crossref(new window)

18.
Kumar, R. and S. Vaithiyanathan. 1990. Occurrence, nutritional significance and effect on animal productivity of tannins in tree leaves. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 30:21-38. crossref(new window)

19.
Lohan, O. P., D. Lall, J. Vaid and S. S. Negi. 1983. Utilization of oak tree fodder in cattle ration and fate of oak leaf tannins in the ruminant system. Ind. J. Anim. Sci. 53:1057-1063.

20.
Makkar, H. P. S. and K. Becker. 1996. A bioassay for tannins, in Polyphenols communications. Vol: 96. Proceeding of XVIII th International Conference on Polyphenols, Bordeaux, July 15-18, pp. 197-198.

21.
Makkar, H. P. S., M. Blummel and K. Becker. 1995. Formation of complexes between polyvinyl pyrrolidones or polyethylene glycols and their implication in gas production and true digestibility in vitro techniques. Br. J. Nut. 73:897-913 crossref(new window)

22.
Makkar, H. P. S., B. Singh and S. S. Negi. 1989. Relationship of rumen degradability with microbial colonization, cell wall constituents and tannin levels in some tree leaves. Anim. Prod. 49:299-303. crossref(new window)

23.
McSweeney, C. S., B. Palmer, R. Bunch and D. O. Krause. 1999. In vitro quality assessment of tannin-containing tropical shrub legumes: protein and fibre digestion. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 82:227-241. crossref(new window)

24.
Menke, H. H. and H. Steingass. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev. 28:7-55.

25.
Menke, K. H., L. Raab, A. Salewski, H. Steingass, D. Fritz and W. Schneider. 1979. The estimation of digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedstuffs from the gas production when they incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 92:217-222.

26.
Meuret, M., J. Boza, N. Narjisse and A. Nastis. 1990. Evaluation and utilization of rangeland feeds by goats, in Goat Nutrition ed by Morand-Fehr P, PUDOC. Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. 161-170.

27.
Nsahlai, I. V., D. E. K. A. Siaw and P. O. Osuji. 1994. The relationship between gas production and chemical composition of 23 browses of genus Sesbania. J. Sci. Food Agric. 65:13-20. crossref(new window)

28.
Orskov, E. R. and P. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighed according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. 92:499-503. crossref(new window)

29.
Ozkan, C. O. and M. Sahin. 2006. Comparison of in situ dry matter degradation with in vitro gas production of oak leaves supplemented with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG). Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19(8):1120-1026.

30.
Papachristou, T. G. and A. S. Nastis. 1996. Influence of decidues broadleaved woody species in goat nutrition during the dry season in Northern Greece. Small Rum. Res. 20:15-22. crossref(new window)

31.
Pearse, E. S. and H. O. Hartley. 1966. Biometrika tables for statisticians. Vol. 1. Camb. University Press

32.
Reed, J. D., H. Soller and A. Wood. 1990. Fodder tree and straw diets for sheep: intake, growth, digestibility and the effect of phenolics on nitrogen utilization. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 30:39-50. crossref(new window)

33.
Rubanza, C. D. K., M. N. Shem, R. Otsyina, T. Ichinohe and T. Fujihara. 2003. Nutritive evaluation of some browse tree legume foliage native to semi-arid areas in western Tanzania. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(10):1429-1437

34.
Rubanza, C. D. K., M. N. Shem, R. Otsyina, S. S. Bakengesa, T. Ichinohe and T. Fujihara. 2005. Polyphenolics and tannins effect on in vitro digestibility of selected Acacia species leaves. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 119:129-142. crossref(new window)

35.
Schofield, P., D. M. Mbugua and A. N. Pell. 2001. Analysis of condensed tannins: a review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 91:21-41. crossref(new window)

36.
Seresinhe, T. and C. Iben. 2003. In vitro quality assessment of two tropical shrub legumes in relation to their extractable tannins content. J. Anim. Phsiol. Anim. Nutr. 87:109-115. crossref(new window)

37.
Silanikove, N., N. Gilboa, I. Nir, Z. Perevolotsky and Z. Nitsan. 1996b. Effect of a daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol on intake and digestion of tannin-containing leaves (Quercus calliprinos, Pistica lentiscus, Ceratonia siliqua) by goats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:199-205. crossref(new window)

38.
Silanikove, N., N. Gilboa, Z. Perevolotsky and Z. Nitsan. 1996a. Goats fed tannin containing leaves do not exhibit toxic syndromes. Small Rum. Res. 21:195-201. crossref(new window)

39.
Silanikove, N., Z. Nitsan and Z. Perevolotsky. 1994. Effect of polyethylene glycol supplementation on intake and digestion of tannin containing leaves (Ceratonia siliqua) by sheep. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 42:2844-2847. crossref(new window)

40.
Silanikove, N., A. Prevolotsky and F. D. Provenza. 2001. Use of tannin-binding chemicals to assay for tannin and their negative effects in ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 91(1-2):69-81. crossref(new window)

41.
Singleton, V. L. 1981. Naturally occurring food toxicants: Phenolic substances of plant origin common in foods. Adv. Food Res. 27:149-242. crossref(new window)

42.
SPSS. 2002. SPSS for windows. Release 11.5.0. SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA.

43.
Tolera, A., K. Khazaal and E. R. Orskov. 1997. Nutritive evaluation of some browses species. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 67:181-195. crossref(new window)

44.
Van Soest, P. J., J. D. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fibre, and neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animals nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597. crossref(new window)