JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Evaluation of Macro Mineral Contents of Forages: Influence of Pasture and Seasonal Variation
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Evaluation of Macro Mineral Contents of Forages: Influence of Pasture and Seasonal Variation
Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ashraf, M.; Hussian, Altaf;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Concentrations of major elements in forages were determined in relation to ruminant requirements at a livestock experimental station in Leiah district, Punjab-Pakistan using mapping techniques. The study investigated the influence of sampling periods and pasture types on the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium in forages. The implications of these forages for nutrition of ruminants were assessed for the livestock population at that particular experimental station, which are supported by the farm pastures. Within the farm, variations in the element status of the forages were related to soil pasture types. A tentative assessment of the mineral status of available forages at this farm for different pastures using guidelines developed for domestic animals indicated deficiencies of only Na, but forages contained adequate Ca, Mg, and K levels required for grazing ruminants. The concentrations of Na in the forage reserves indicated that the potential supply of this element to plants was limited from the soil to plants and from plants to the animals grazing them. Soil minerals were not measured in this study. The potential use of fertilizers, as pasture amendment as well as supplementation of ruminants, with a specifically tailored mineral mixture is important to livestock producers and environmentalists as well, because their use may improve forage nutritive value and in turn meet requirements of animals.
 Keywords
Department of Botany;University of Agriculture;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Effect of Location, Year and Variety on Winter Cereal Forage Yield and Quality in the Southern Plateau of the Spain,;;;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2008. vol.21. 10, pp.1416-1424 crossref(new window)
 References
1.
Adams, R. S. 1975. Variability in mineral and trace element content of dairy cattle feeds. J. Dairy Sci. 58:1538-1548. crossref(new window)

2.
ARC. 1980. The Nutrients Requirements of Ruminant Livestock. 4th ed. 73-310. CAB International, Wallingford.

3.
Cuesta, P. A., L. R. McDowell, W. E. Kunkle, F. Bullock, A. Drew, N. S. Wilkinson and F. G. Martin. 1993. Seasonal variation of soil and forage mineral concentrations in north Florida. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 24:335-347. crossref(new window)

4.
Dua, K. and A. D. Care. 1995. Impaired absorption of magnesium in the etiology of grass tetany. Br. Vet. J. 151:413-426. crossref(new window)

5.
Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F-test. Biometrics 11:1-42. crossref(new window)

6.
Economic Survey. 2003-2004. Government of Pakistan, Finance Division Economic Advisor's Wing, Islamabad.

7.
Espinoza, J. E., L. R. McDowell, N. S. Wilkinson, J. H. Conrad and F. G. Martin. 1991. Monthly variation of forages and soil minerals in Central Florida. I. Macro-minerals. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 22:2023-2056.

8.
Fick, K. R., L. R. McDowell, P. H. Miles, N. S. Wilkinson, J. D. Funk and J. H. Conrad. 1979. Methods of mineral analysis for plant and animal tissues. 2nd ed. Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville.

9.
INRA. 1989. Mineral requirements (Ed. R. Jarrige). Ruminant Nutrition: Recommended allowances and feed tables. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA). John Libbey Eurotext Publications, Paris. pp. 49-59.

10.
Judson, G. J. and J. D. McFarlane. 1998. Mineral disorders in grazing livestock and the usefulness of soil and plant analysis in the assessment of these disorders. Aust. J. Experi. Agric. 38:707-723. crossref(new window)

11.
Judson, G. J., I. W. Caple, J. P. Langlands and D. W. Peter. 1987. Mineral nutrition of grazing ruminants in southern Australia. Temperate Pastures Their Production, Utilization and Management (Ed. J. L. Wheeler, C. J. Pearson and G. E. Robards). 377-385. Australian Wool Corporation/CSIRO: East Melbourne.

12.
Khan, Z. I., A. Hussain, M. Ashraf and L. R. McDowell. 2006. Mineral Status of Soils and Forages in Southwestern Punjab-Pakistan: Micro-minerals. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1139-1147.

13.
Kim, J. D., S. G. Kim, S. J. Abuel, C. H. Kwon, C. N. Shin and K. H. Ko. 2006. Effect of Location, Season, and Variety on Yield and Quality of Forage Oat. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:970-977.

14.
Little, D. A. 1982. Utilization of minerals. Nutritional Limits to Animal Production from Pastures (J. B. Hacker). 259-283. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux: Slough, UK.

15.
McDowell, L. R. 1985. Nutrition of Grazing Ruminants in Warm Climates. Academic Press, New York, p. 443.

16.
McDowell, L. R. 1997. Minerals for Grazing Ruminants in Tropical Regions. Extension Bulletin, Animal Science Department, Centre for Tropical Agriculture, University of Florida. 81.

17.
McDowell, L. R. and G. Valle. 2000. Major minerals in forages. Forage Evaluation in Ruminant Nutrition (Ed. D. I. Givens, E. Owen, R. F. E. Oxford and H. M. Omed). p. 373. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

18.
McDowell, L. R., J. H. Conrad and F. G. Hembry. 1993. Minerals for Grazing Ruminants in Tropical Regions. Univ. Florida, Gainesville.

19.
McDowell,L.R.1996.Feeding minerals to cattle in pasture. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 60:241-246. crossref(new window)

20.
Memon, K. S., A. Rashid and H. K. Puno. 1992. Phosphorus deficiency diagnosis and p soil test calibration in Pakistan. Proceedings Trop. Soils Bulletin No. 92-03, Phosphorous decision support system workshop, College Station, Texas, March 11-12, 1992, University of Hawaii: Honolulu, Hawaii, 116-139.

21.
Meschy, F. 2000. Recent progress in the assessment of mineral requirements of goats. Lives. Produc. Sci. 64:9-14. crossref(new window)

22.
Minson, D. J. 1990. Forage in ruminants. Academic Press Inc., San Diego, California, USA.

23.
Morris, J. G. 1980. Assessment of sodium requirements of grazing beef cattle: A review. J. Anim. Sci. 50:145-152.

24.
National Research Council. 1984. Nutrient requirements of domestic animals. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle (6th rev. ed.). Natl. Acad. Sci. Washington, DC.

25.
National Research Council. 1985. Nutrient requirements of domestic animals, Nutrient Requirements of Sheep (5th ed.) Natl. Acad. Sci. NRC, Washington, DC.

26.
National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th revised edition. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.

27.
National Research Council. 1996. National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 7th revised edition. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.

28.
NCA 1988. Report of the National Commission on Agriculture. MINFAL, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

29.
Netherlands Committee on Mineral Nutrition 1973. Tracing and treating mineral disorders in dairy cattle. Netherlands Committee on Mineral Nutrition, Centre for Agriculture Publishing and Documentation-Wageningen, The Netherlands.

30.
NFDC (National Fertilizer Development Center). 1993. Fertilizer statistics data base. Fertilizer Development of Agriculture Nutrient Circular, 939.

31.
Ogebe, P. O., J. A. Ayoade, L. R. McDowell, F. G. Martin and N. S. Wilkinson. 1995. Mineral concentrations of forages and soils in Benue State, Nigeria. I. Macrominerals and forage in vitro organic matter digestibility and crude protein concentrations. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 26:1989-2007. crossref(new window)

32.
Pastrana, R., L. R. McDowell, J. H. Conrad and N. S. Wilkinson. 1991. Macromineral status of sheep in the Paramo region of Colombia. Small Rumin. Res. 5:9-21. crossref(new window)

33.
Perkin-Elmer Corp. Analytical Methods for Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Perkin-Elmer Corp.: Norwalk, CT, 1980.

34.
Prabowo, A., L. R. McDowell, N. S. Wilkinson, C. J. Wilcox and J. H. Cornad. 1990. Mineral status of grazing cattle in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, I. Macrominerals. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 4:111-120.

35.
Reuter, D. J. and J. B. Robinson. 1997. Plant Analysis. An Interpretation Manual. 2nd ed. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

36.
Salih, Y. M., L. R. McDowell, J. F. Hentges, R. M. Mason Jr. and J. H. Conrad. 1983. Mineral status of grazing beef cattle in the warm climate region of Florida. Trop. An. Health Proceed. 15:245-251. crossref(new window)

37.
Smith, F. W. and J. F. Loneragon. 1997. Interpretation of plant analysis: concepts and principles. Plant Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. 2nd Ed. (Ed. D. J. Reuter and J. B. Robinson), 3-33. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

38.
Ternouth, J. H. 1990. Phosphorus and beef production in northern Australia. 3. Phosphorus in cattle-a review. Tropical Grasses 24:159-69.

39.
Tiffany, M. E., L. R. McDowell, G. A. O'Connor, F. G. Martin, N. S. Wilkinson, E. C. Cardoso, S. S. Percival and P. A. Rabiansky. 2000. Effects of pasture applied bio solids on performance and mineral status of grazing beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 78:1331.

40.
Tiffany, M. E., L. R. McDowell, G. A. O'Connor, H. Nguyen, F. G. Martin, N. S. Wilkinson and N. A. Katzowitz. 2001. Effects of residual and reapplied biosolids on forage and soil concentrations over a grazing season in north Florida. II. Microminerals. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 32:2211-2226. crossref(new window)

41.
Underwood, E. J. 1981. The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, London.

42.
Underwood,E.J and N.F.Suttle.1999.The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock,(3rd.ed) CAB International, Wellington and New York,USA.

43.
Vargas, E. and L. R. McDowell. 1997. In Mineral Deficiencies of Cattle in Central America and the Caribbean, Emphasizing Cost Rica. Proceedings of the International Conference of Livestock in the Tropics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, May, Gainesville, Florida, 1997, 99-114.