Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Supplementing with Single or Multiple Trace Minerals on Growth Performance, Fecal Mineral Excretion and Nutrient Utilization in Pullets from 1 to 18 Weeks of Age
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Supplementing with Single or Multiple Trace Minerals on Growth Performance, Fecal Mineral Excretion and Nutrient Utilization in Pullets from 1 to 18 Weeks of Age
Zhong, L.L.; Yao, J.H.; Cheng, N.; Sun, Y.J.; Liu, Y.R.; Wang, Y.J.; Sun, X.Q.; Xi, H.B.;
  PDF(new window)
This study investigated whether supplemental Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn are needed in a practical diet for pullets. Four hundred and twenty females of an egg-laying strain (1-d-old, Lohmann Brown Layer) were randomly distributed into 4 groups, consisting of 7 replicates of 15 birds each. During the 18-week experimental period, chicks were given three basal diets in sequence, each with single or multiple Mn, Zn and Cu supplementation to improve the mineral balance gradually. In the Control, no Mn, Zn, and Cu were added; in the single Mn supplemented group (sMn) Mn was added to 120, 60, and 60 mg/kg for 1-6, 7-12, and 13-18 weeks of age, respectively; in the multiple Mn and Zn supplemented group (mMnZn), Mn was added to 180, 90, and 90 mg/kg and Zn was added to 120, 105, and 105 mg/kg for 1-6, 7-12, and 13-18 weeks of age, respectively; in the multiple Mn, Zn, Cu supplemented group (mMnZnCu), Mn, Zn, and Cu were added to the same multiple of basal Fe concentration relative to NRC (1994) recommendations. Energy and protein metabolizability were determined by subtracting energy/protein intake by energy/protein excretion (from both feces and urine) and dividing by energy/protein intake. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of feed intake, final body weight or tibia length throughout the experiment. Optimal growth performance was observed in the Control, while adding trace minerals to basal diets tended to result in decreased productive performance. Protein metabolizability was increased by mMnZn and mMnZnCu treatments, but energy metabolizability was not affected. Concentrations of Mn, Zn, Cu in excreta varied greatly related to dietary content, and the retentions of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn were all increased due to the improvement of mineral balance. Based on these results, it is suggested that the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn in typical basal diets used in this study were adequate for normal growth for pullets from 1 to 18 weeks of age.
Trace Mineral;Pullet, Mineral Excretion;Growth Performance;
 Cited by
Canonical Correlation Analysis for Estimation of Relationships between Sexual Maturity and Egg Production Traits upon Availability of Nutrients in Pullets,;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2008. vol.21. 11, pp.1576-1584 crossref(new window)
Effects of diets supplemented with zinc and manganese on performance and related parameters in laying hens‡, Animal Science Journal, 2012, 83, 6, 474  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of copper, iron, zinc, and manganese supplementation in a corn and soybean meal diet on the growth performance, meat quality, and immune responses of broiler chickens, The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 2011, 20, 3, 263  crossref(new windwow)
Dietary Strategies to Improve Nutritional Value, Oxidative Stability, and Sensory Properties of Poultry Products, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2009, 49, 9, 800  crossref(new windwow)
Influence of animal age on body concentrations of minerals in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2014, 98, 6, 1054  crossref(new windwow)
AOAC. 1996. Official Method of Analysis of AOAC International (16th Ed), Gathersburg, MD, AOAC International.

Blamberg, D. L., U. B. Blackwood, W. C. Supplee and G. F. Combs. 1960. effect of zinc deficiency inheson hatchability and embryonic development. Processing of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 104:217-220.

Brandeo-Neto, J., V. Stefan, B. Mendonga, V. Bloise and A. Castro. 1995. The essential role of zinc in growth. Nurt. Res. 15:335-358.

Burrell, A. L., W. A. Dozier, A. J. Dabis and T. L. Ward. 2004. Response of broilers to dietary zinc concentrations and sources in relation to environmental implications. Br. Poult. Sci. 45:255-263.

Chandra, R. A. and B. Au. 1980. single nutrient deficiency and cell-mediated immune responses. 1. zinc. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 33:736-738.

Goswami, T. K., R. Bhar, S. E. Jadhav, S. N. Joardar and G. C. Ram. 2005. Role of dietary zinc as a nutritional immunomodulator. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:439-452.

Greech, B. L., J. W. Spears, W. L. Flowers, G. M. Hill, K. E. Lioyd, T. A. Armstrong and T. E. Engle. 2004. Effect of dietary mineral concentration and source on performance, mineral status, and fecal mineral excretion in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 82:2140-2147.

Henry, P. R., C. B. Ammerman, R. D. Miles and R. C. Littell. 1992. Relative bioavailability of iron in feed grade phosphates for chicks. J. Anim. Sci. 70:228-233.

Kim, I. H., J. D., J. H. Hancock, J. S. Lee, H. H. Park, C. S. Kropf, J. O. Kim and R. H. Hines. 1997. Effects of removing vitamin and trace mineral premixes from diet on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Nutr. Feed (Korean), 21 489-496.

Kingery, W. L., C. W. Wood, D. P. Delaney, J. C. Williams and G. L. Mullins. 1994. Impact of long-term land application of broiler litter on environmental related soil properties. J. Envir. Qua. 23:139-147.

Marron, L., M. R. Belford and K. J. McCracken. 2001. The effects of adding xylanase, vitamin C and copper sulfate to wheat-based diets on broiler performance. Br. Poult. Sci. 42:493-500. crossref(new window)

Mavromichalis, I., J. D. Hancock and I. H. Kim. 1999. Effects of omitting vitamin and trace mineral premixes and reducing inorganic phosphorus additions on growth performance, carcass characteristics and muscle quality in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2700-2708

Mueller, J. P., J. P. Zublena, M. H. Pooer, J. C. Barker and J. T. Green. 1994. Managing Pasture and Hay Fields Receiving Nutrients From Anaerobic Swine Waste Lagoons. NC coop. Ext. Service, AG-506

NRC. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry (9th Ed.) National Academic Press. Washington, DC.

Nwokolo, E. and Bragg D. B. Bragg. 1980. Biological availability of minerals in rapeseed meal. Poult. Sci. 59:155-158.

O'Dell, B. L., C. E. Burpo and J. E. Savage. 1972. Evaluation of zinc availability in foodstuffs of plant and animal origin. J. Nutr. 102:653-660.

O'Dell, B. L. 1992. Zinc plays both structural and catalytic roles in metalloproteins. Nutr. Rev. 50: 48-50. crossref(new window)

O'Dell, B. L. 1997. Mineral-iron interaction as assessed by bioavailability and iron channel function. Pages 641-659 in Handbook of Nutritionally Essential Mineral Elements (Ed. B. L.'Dell and R. A. Sunde) Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.

Richard, D. Miles and Peter R. henry. 2000. Relative bioavailability of trace mineral. Ciencia Animal Brasilerral (2):73-93.

Ruiz, J. A., A. M., Perez-vendell and E. Estevan-Garcia. 2000. Effect of dietary iron and copper on performance and oxidative stability in broiler leg meat. Br. Poult. Sci. 41:163-167. crossref(new window)

Sands, J. S. and M. O. Smith. 1999. Broiler in heat stress condition: effect of dietary manganese proteinate or picollinate supplementation. J. Appl. Poult. Sci. 8:280-287.

SAS Institute. 1999. SAS User's Guide: Version 6.12 SAS Institute inc., Carry, NC.

Spears, J. W. 1996. Optimizing mineral levels and sources for farm animals, in: Nutrient management of animals to enhance and protect the Environment, pp. 259-275 (CRC Press).

Tian, J. Z., J. H. Lee, J. D. Kim, Y. K. Han, K. M. Park and In K. Han. 2001. Effects of different levels of vitamin-mineral premixes on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing-finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:515-524.

Tucker, M. R. 1997. Experiences with metal toxicities in North Carolina, in: Soil Science., pp. 97-100.

Vallee, B. L. and D. S. Auld. 1990.The metallobiochemistry of zinc enzymes, in: (Ed. A. Meiter) Advances in Enzymology, pp. 283-429 (New York, John Wiley)

Wang, J. Y., S. G. Zhu and F. C. Xu. 2002. The important role of trace mineral in coenzymes in: Biochemistry. High education Prsee, pp. 456-468 (Chinese)

Yao, J. H., J. Y. Zhang, T. Zhang, N. T. Zhang and J. X. Zhang. 2003. Effect of dietary contents of trace minerals on the performance and apparent metabolic energy of laying hens. J. Northwest Science and Technology University of Agriculture and Forestry (Chinese), 31(4):36-40.