Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Dietary Requirement of True Digestible Phosphorus and Total Calcium for Growing Pigs
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Dietary Requirement of True Digestible Phosphorus and Total Calcium for Growing Pigs
Ruan, Z.; Zhang, Y.-G.; Yin, Y.-L.; Li, T.-J.; Huang, R.-L.; Kim, S.W.; Wu, G.Y.; Deng, Z.Y.;
  PDF(new window)
Sixty healthy growing pigs ( with an average BW of 21.4 kg) were used to determine the true digestible phosphorus (TDP) requirement of growing pigs on the basis of growth performance and serum biochemical indices. Pigs were assigned randomly to one of five dietary treatments (12 pigs/diet), representing five levels of TDP (0.16%, 0.20%, 0.23%, 0.26% and 0.39%). There were three replications per treatment, with four pigs (2 barrows and 2 gilts) in each replication (2 pigs/pen) A randomized-block design was used, with pen as the experimental unit. Experimental diets were formulated to provide the 5 TDP levels with a total calcium (Ca) to TDP ratio of 2:1, and offered to pigs at 5% BW for 28 d. The total Ca contents of the five diets were 0.33, 0.38, 0.45, 0.51 and 0.79%, respectively. During the 28-d experimental period, the ADG of pigs was affected by dietary TDP levels as described by Equation 1: y = ,759; ( = 0.99; p<0.01; y = ADG, g/d; x = dietary TDP, %). The feed:gain ratio for pigs was affected by dietary TDP levels as described by Equation 2: y = ( = 0.99; p<0.01; y = feed:gain ratio; x = dietary TDP, %). Total P concentrations in serum were affected by dietary TDP levels as described by Equation 3: y = ( = 0.99; p<0.01; y = total serum P concentration and x = dietary TDP, %). The highest ADG (782 g/d), the lowest feed:gain ratio (1.07), and the highest total serum P concentration (3.1 mmol/L) were obtained when dietary TDP level was 0.34%. Collectively, these results indicate that the optimal TDP requirement of growing pigs is 0.34% of the diet (e.g., 5.1 g/day for a 30-kg pig that consumed 1.5 kg feed daily) at a total Ca to TDP ratio of 2:1.
Calcium;Pigs;Growth;Biochemical Indices;True Digestible Phosphorus;
 Cited by
True Digestibility of Phosphorus in Different Resources of Feed Ingredients in Growing Pigs,;;;;;;;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2008. vol.21. 1, pp.107-119 crossref(new window)
A Review of Interactions between Dietary Fiber and the Gastrointestinal Microbiota and Their Consequences on Intestinal Phosphorus Metabolism in Growing Pigs,;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2008. vol.21. 4, pp.603-615 crossref(new window)
Effect of Galacto-mannan-oligosaccharides or Chitosan Supplementation on Cytoimmunity and Humoral Immunity in Early-weaned Piglets,;;;;;;;;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2008. vol.21. 5, pp.723-731 crossref(new window)
Effect of Dietary Energy Level on Nutrient Utilization, Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 in Plasma, Liver and Longissimus dorsi Muscle in Growing-finishing Pigs Using Soybean Oil as an Energy Source,;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2009. vol.22. 8, pp.1180-1185 crossref(new window)
Abelson, P. H. 1999. A potential phosphate crisis. Sci. 283:2015. crossref(new window)

Anderson, J. J. B. 1991. Nutritional biochemistry of calcium and phosphorus. J. Nutr. Biochem. 6:58-72-76.

Agricultural Research Council (ARC). 1981. The Nutrient Requirements of Pigs. Slough, England: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.

Bayley, H. S. and R. G. Thomson. 1969. Phosphorus requirement of growing pigs and effect of steam pelleting on phosphorus availability. J. Anim. Sci. 28:484-490.

Chapman, H. L., Jr. J. Kastelic, G. C. Ashton, V. W. Hays and V. C. Speer. 1962. Calcium and phosphorus requirement of growingfinishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 21:112-119.

Chen, Y. L., O. S. Kwon, B. J. Min, K. S. Son, J. H. Cho, J. W. Hong and I. H. Kim. 2005. The effects of dietary biotite V supplementation as an alternative substance to antibiotics in growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1642-1650.

Chen, Y. L., B. J. Min, J. H. Cho, O. S. Kwon, K. S. Son, H. J. Kim and I. H. Kim. 2006. Effects of dietary bacillus-based probiotic on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood characteristics and fecal noxious gas content in finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:587-592.

Combs, G. E., J. M. Vandepopuliere, H. D. Wallace and M. Koger. 1962. Phosphorus requirement of young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 21:3-10.

Combs, N. R., E. T. Kornegay, M. D. Lindemann, D. R. Notter, J. H. Wilson and J. P. Mason. 1991. Calcium and phosphorus requirement of swine from weaning to market weight: 2. Development of response curves for bone criteria and comparison of bending and shear bone testing. J. Anim. Sci. 69:682-693.

Correll, D. L. 1999. Phosphorus: a rate limiting nutrient in surface water. Poult. Sci. 78:674-682.

Cromwell, G. L., V. W. Hays, C. H. Chaney and J. R. Overfield. 1970. Effects of dietary phosphorus and calcium level on performance, bone mineralization and carcass characteristics of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 30:519-523.

Cromwell, G. L., V. W. Hays, C. W. Scheer and J. R. Overfield. 1972. Effects of dietary phosphorus and calcium level on performance and carcass, metacarpal and turbinate characteristics of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 34:746-750.

Cromwell, G. L. and R. D. Coffey. 1991. Mammalian small intestinal phytases (EC Br. J. Nutr. 50:673-678. crossref(new window)

Deng, D, L. Huang, T. J. Li, G. Y. Wu, M. Y. Xie, Z. R. Tang, P. Kang, Y. M. Zhang, M. Z. Fan, X. F. Kong, Z. Ruan, H. Xiong, Z. Y. Deng and Y.-L. Yin. 2007a. Nitrogen balance in barrows fed low-protein diets supplemented with essential amino acids. Livest. Sci. 109:220-223. crossref(new window)

Deng, D., Ai-Ke Li, W. Y. Chu, R. L. Huang, T. J. Li, X. F. Kong, Z. J. Liu, G. Y. Wu, Y. M. Zhang and Y. L. Yin. 2007b. Growth performance and metabolic responses in barrows fed lowprotein diets supplemented with essential amino acids. Livest. Sci. 109:224-227. crossref(new window)

Fan, M. Z., T. Archbold, W.C. Sauer and D. Lackeyram. 2001. Novel methodology allows simultaneous measurement of true phosphorus digestibility and the gastrointestinal endogenous phosphorus outputs in studies with pigs. J. Nutr. 131:2388-2396.

Fan, M. Z. and W. C. Sauer. 2002. Additivity of apparent ileal and fecal phosphorus digestibility values measured in single feed ingredients for growing-finishing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 82:183-191. crossref(new window)

Fan, M. Z., T. J. Li, Y. L. Yin, R. J. Fang, Z. Y. Tang, Z. P. Hou, R. L. Huang, Z. Y. Deng, H. Y. Zhong, R. G. Zhang, J. Zhang, B. Wang and H. Schulze.2005. Effect of phytase supplementation with two levels of phosphorus diets on ileal and faecal digestibilities of nutrients and phosphorus, calcium, nitrogen and energy balances in growing pigs. Anim. Sci. 81:67-75.

Fang, R. J., Y. L. Yin, K. N. Wang, J. H. He, Q. H. Chen, T. J. Li, M. Z. Fan, and G. Wu. 2007a. Comparison of the regression analysis technique and the substitution method for the determination of true phosphorus digestibility and faecal endogenous phosphorus losses associated with feed ingredients for growing pigs. Livest. Sci. 109:251-254. crossref(new window)

Fang, R.-J., T.-J. Li, K.-N. Wang, G.-Y Wu, D. Qi, J. H. He, Y.-L. Yin and M.- Z. Fan. 2007b. Additives of apparent and true phosphorus digestibilities in feed ingredients for growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20(7):1092-1099.

Harmon, B. G., J. Simon, D. E. Becher, A. H. Jensen and D. H. Baker. 1970. Effect of source and level of dietary phosphorus on structure and composition of turbinate and long bones. J. Anim. Sci. 30:742-750.

Huang, R. -L., Y. -L. Yin, G. -Y. Wu, Y. -G. Zhang, T. -J. Li, L.-L. Li, M. -X. Li, Z. -R. Tang, J. Zhang, B. Wang, J.-H. He and X.- Z. Nie. 2005. Effect of Dietary Oligochitosan Supplementation on Ileal Digestibility of Nutrients and Performance in Broilers. Poult. Sci. 84:1383-1388.

Huang, Rui-lin, Yin Yu-Long, Mei-xiang Li, Guo-yao Wu, Tie-jun Li, Li-li Li, Cheng-bo Yang, Jun Zhang, Bin Wang, Zhe-yuan Deng, Yong-gang Zhang, Zhi-ru Tang, Ping Kang and Yu-ming Guo. 2007. Dietary oligochitosan supplementation enhances immune status of broilers. J. Sci. Food Aric. 87:153-159. crossref(new window)

Jobgen, W. S., S. K. Fried, W. J. Fu, C. J. Meininger and G. Wu. 2006. Regulatory role for the arginine-nitric oxide pathway in metabolism of energy substrates. J. Nutr. Biochem. 17:571-588. crossref(new window)

Jonbloed, A. W., H. Everts and P. A. Kemme. 1991. Phosphorus availability and requirements in pigs. Pages 65-80 in Heinemann, eds. Recent advances in animal nutrition. Butterworth, London, UK.

Jongbloed, A. W., N. P. Lenis and Z. Mroz. 1997. Impact of nutrition on reduction of environmental pollution by pigs: an overview of recent research. Vet. Quart. 19:3, 130-134.

Kong, X.-F., G.-Y. Wu, Y.-L. Yin, H.-J. Liu, F.-G. Yin, T.-J. Li, R.- L. Huang, P. Kang, F.-F. Xing, M.-Z. Fan, C.-B. Yang and Q.- H. He 2007a. Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal ultra-fine 3 powder enhances cellular and humorl immunity in early weaned piglets. Livest. Sci. 108:94-98. crossref(new window)

Kong, X. F., G. Y. Wu, Y. P. Liao, Z. P. Hou, H. J. Liu, F. G. Yin, T. J. Li, R. L. Huang, Y. M. Zhang, D. Deng, P. Kang, R. X. Wang, Z. Y. Tang, C. B. Yang, Z. Y. Deng, H. Xiong, W.-Y. Chu, Z. Yuan, M. Y. Xie and Y. L. Yin. 2007b. Effects of Chinese herbal ultra-fine powder as a dietary additive on growth performance, serum metabolites and intestinal health in early-weaned piglets. Livest. Sci. 108:272-275. crossref(new window)

Libal, G. W., E. R. Peo, Jr., R. P. Andrews and P. E. Vipperman, Jr. 1969. Levels of calcium phosphorus for growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 28:331-336.

Lin, Y. C. and Z. Y. Jiang. 2002a. Study on dietary available phosphorus requirement of growing-finishing pigs. Swine Production (in Chinese). 4:1-7.

Lin,Y. C., Z. Y. Jiang, Z. B. Zhang, G. H. Peng, L. Zhen and D. Q. Yu. 2002b. Study on dietary available phosphorus requirement of 4-9 kg weanling piglets. Swine Production (in Chinese). 1:13-14.

Mallin, M. A. 2000. Impacts of industrial animal production on river and estuaries. Am. Scientist. 26-37.

Miller, E. R., D. E. Ullrey, C. L. Zutaut, B. V. Baltzer, D. A. Schmidt, J. A. Hoefer and R. W. Luecke. 1964. Phosphorus requirement of the baby pig. J. Nutr. 82:34-40.

Naqvi, S. W. 2000. Increased marine production of N2O due to intensifying anoxia on the Indian continental shelf. Nature. 408:346-349. crossref(new window)

National Research Council. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA.

O'Quinn, P. R., D. A. Knabe and E. J. Gregg. 1997. Digestible phosphorus needs of terminal-cross growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1308-1318.

Pouslen, H. 2000. Phosphorus utilization and excretion in pig production. J. Environment Qualification. 29:24-27. crossref(new window)

Reinhart, G. A. and D. C. Mahan. 1986. Effect of various calcium:phosphorus ratios at low and high dietary phosphorus for starter, grower and finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 63:457-466.

SAS Institute. 2000. The SAS system. SAS institute, Cary, NC, USA.

Shen, Y. R., M. Z. Fan, A. Ajakaiye and T. Archbold. 2002. Use of the regression analysis technique to determine the true phosphorus digestibility and the endogenous phosphorus output associated with corn in growing pigs. J. Nutr. 132:1199-1206.

Tang, Z. R., Y. L. Yin, C. M. Nyachoti, R. L. Huang, T. J. Li, C. B. Yang, X. J. Yang, J. S. Gong, J. Peng, D. S. Qi, J. J. Xing, Z. H. Sun and M. Z. Fan. 2005. Effect of dietary supplementation of chitosan and galacto-mannan- oligosaccharide on serum parameters and the insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA expression in early-weaned piglets. Dom. Anim. Endocrinol. 28:430-441. crossref(new window)

Wang, J. J., D. F. Li, L. J. Dangott and G. Wu. 2006. Proteomics and its role in nutrition research. J. Nutr. 136:1759-1762.

Wang, F. L., M. F. Zhang, Q. M. Chen and M. Q. Xu. 2002. The effects of dietary phosphorus and calcium to phosphorus ratio on the activity of alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium and phosphorus in miniature-pigs (Xiang pig). Acta Zoonutrimenta Sinica. 13:36-42.

Wu, G. 1998. Intestinal mucosal amino acid catabolism. J. Nutr. 128:1249-1252.

Yang, Cheng-bo, Ai-ke Li, Yu-long Yin, Rui-Lin Huang, Tie-jun Li, Li-li Li, Yi-ping Liao, Ze-yuan Deng, Hua-yi Zhong, Xiao-jian Yang and Ming-Z. Fan. 2005. Effects of dietary supplementation of cysteamine on growth performance, carcass quality, serum hormones and gastric ulcer in finishing pigs. J. Sci. Food Agric. 85:1047-1952.

Yang, H., A. K. Li, Y. L. Yin, T. J. Li, Z. R. Wang, G. Wu, R. L. Huang, X. F. Kong, C. B. Yang, P. Kang, J. Deng, S. X. Wang, B. E. Tan, Q. Hu, F. F. Xing, X. Wu, Q. H. He, K. Yao, Z. J. Liu, Z. R. Tang, F. G. Yin, Z. Y. Deng, M. Y. Xie and M. Z. Fan. 2007. True phosphorus digestibility and the endogenous phosphorus outputs associated with brown rice for weanling pigs measured by the simple linear regression analysis technique. Anim. 1:213-220. crossref(new window)

Yin, Y.-L., Z.-Y. Deng and H.-L. Huang, T.-J. Li and H. Y. Zhong. 2004. The effect of arabinoxylanase and protease supplementation on nutritional value of diets containing wheat bran or rice bran in growing pig. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 13:445-461.

Yin, Y. L. 2005. Applied techniques of regulating nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in pigs and environmental safety. Annual Report of Institute of Subtropical Agricutlure, The Chinese Academy of Science, Changsha, Hunan, China.