Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The Effects of Feeding Acacia saligna on Feed Intake, Nitrogen Balance and Rumen Metabolism in Sheep
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
The Effects of Feeding Acacia saligna on Feed Intake, Nitrogen Balance and Rumen Metabolism in Sheep
Krebs, G.L.; Howard, D.M.; Dods, K.;
  PDF(new window)
The aim of this study was to determine the feeding value to sheep of Acacia saligna grown under temperate conditions. Pen trials were undertaken to determine the effects of feeding A. saligna, which had been grown in a Mediterranean environment, on feed intake, nitrogen balance and rumen metabolism in sheep. Sheep were given ad libitum access to A. saligna with or without supplementation with PEG 4,000 or PEG 6,000. PEG 4000 appears to be the major detannification agent used in trials involving high tannin feed despite the fact that PEG 6000 has been shown to be more effective, in vitro. For this reason it was of interest to compare the two, in vivo. Dry matter intake was greater (p<0.05) in sheep supplemented with either PEG 4,000 or PEG 6,000 compared to the control. There was no difference, however, in intake between those supplemented with either PEG 4,000 or 6,000. Although animals were not weighed throughout the trial, a loss in body condition was obvious, in particular in the control group. Intake of N was greater (p<0.05) in sheep supplemented with either PEG 4,000 or PEG 6,000 than in the control. There was no difference in N intake between those supplemented with either PEG 4,000 or PEG 6,000. There were no significant differences in either the faecal or urinary N output between any of the treatment groups and all treatment groups were in negative N balance. Neither the average nor maximum pH of ruminal fluid of the control group was different to those supplemented with PEG. The minimum pH for the control group, however, was significantly higher (p<0.05) than for either of the PEG treatments. The average and the maximum ammonia levels were lower (p<0.05) in the control group compared with those in either of the PEG treatment groups. For all dietary treatments ruminal ammonia levels were well below the threshold for maximal microbial growth. Feeding A. saligna, without PEG, had a definite defaunating effect on the rumen. For all dietary treatments ruminal ammonia levels were well below the threshold for maximal microbial growth. It was concluded that A. saligna was inadequate as the sole source of nutrients for sheep, even with the addition of PEG 4,000 or PEG 6,000. The anti-nutritional effects on the animals were largely attributed to the excessive biological activity of the phenolics in the A. saligna leaves. There is a need to determine other supplements that may be complimentary with PEG to enhance the nutritive value of A. saligna to maintain a minimum of animal maintenance.
Acacia saligna;Sheep;PEG;Tannins;Protozoa;
 Cited by
In vitro Nutrient Digestibility, Gas Production and Tannin Metabolites of Acacia nilotica Pods in Goats,Barman, K.;Rai, S.N.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2008. vol.21. 1, pp.59-65 crossref(new window)
Abou El Nasr, H. M., H. M. Kandil, A. El Kerdawy, Dawlat, H. S. Khamis and H. M. El Shaer. 1996. Value of processed saltbush and Acacia shrubs as sheep fodders under the arid conditions of Egypt. Small Rumin. Res. 24:15-20 crossref(new window)

Barahona, R., C. E. Lascano, R. Cochran, J. Morrill and E. C. Titgemeyer. 1997. Intake, digestion, and nitrogen utilization by sheep fed tropical legumes with contrasting tannin concentration and astringency. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1633-1640

Barry, T. N. and S. J. Duncan. 1984. The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep 1. Voluntary intake. Br. J. Nutr. 51:485-491 crossref(new window)

Ben Salem, H., A. Nefzaoui, L. Ben Salem and J. L. Tisserand. 1997. Effect of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage supply on intake and digestion by sheep fed lucerne hay-based diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 68:101-113 crossref(new window)

Ben Salem, H., A. Nefzaoui, L. Ben Salem and J. L. Tisserand. 1999. Intake, digestibility, urinary excretion of purine derivatives and growth by sheep given fresh, air-dried or polyethylene glycol-treated foliage of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 78:297-311 crossref(new window)

Chriyaa, A., K. J. Moore and S. S. Waller. 1997. Browse foliage and annual legume pods as supplements to wheat straw for sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 66:85-96 crossref(new window)

Degen, A. A., K. Becker, H. P. S. Makkar and N. Borowy. 1995. Acacia saligna as a fodder tree for desert livestock and the interaction of its tannins with fibre fractions. J. Sci. Food Agric. 68:65-71 crossref(new window)

Degen, A. A., R. W. Benjamin, T. Mishorr, M. Kam, K. Becker, H. P. S. Makkar and H. J. Schwartz. 2000. Acacia saligna as a supplementary feed for grazing desert sheep and goats. J. Agric. Sci. 135:77-84 crossref(new window)

Degen, A. A., A. Blanke, K. Becker, M. Kam, R. W. Benjamin and H. P. S. Makkar. 1997. The nutritive value of Acacia saligna and Acacia salicina for goats and sheep. Anim. Sci. 64:253- 259 crossref(new window)

Degen, A. A., T. Mishorr, H. P. S. Makkar, M. Kam, R. W. Benjamin, K. Becker and H. J. Schwartz. 1998. Effect of Acacia saligna with and without administration of polyethylene glycol on dietary intake of desert sheep. Anim. Sci. 67:491-498 crossref(new window)

D'Mello, J. P. F. 1992. Chemical constraints to the use of tropical legumes in animal nutrition. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 38:237- 261 crossref(new window)

Ebong, C. 1995. Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Sesbania sesban as supplements to tef (Eragrostis tef) straw fed to sheep and goats. Small Rumin. Res. 18:233-238 crossref(new window)

FAO/IAEA. 2000. Quantification of Tannins in Tree Foliage, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

Fassler, O. M. and C. E. Lascano. 1995. The effect of mixtures of sun-dried tropical shrub legumes on intake and nitrogen balance by sheep. Tropical Grasslands 29:92-96

Fujihara, T., I. M. Osuga, S. A. Abdulrazak and T. Ichinohe. 2005. Chemical composition, degradation characteristics and effect of tannin on digestibility of some browse species from Kenya harvested during the wet season. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:54-60

Harrison, D. G., D. E. Beever, D. J. Thomson and D. F. Osbourn. 1973. The influence of diet upon quantity and type of amino acids entering and leaving the small intestine of sheep. J. Agric. Sci. 81:391 crossref(new window)

Jackson, F. S., T. N. Barry, C. Lascano and B. Palmer. 1996. The extractable and bound condensed tannin content of leaves from tropical tree, shrub and forage legumes. J. Sci. Food Agric. 71:103-110 crossref(new window)

Jones, W. T. and J. L. Mangan. 1977. Complexes of the condensed tannins of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) with fraction 1 leaf protein and with submaxillary mucoprotein, and their reversal by polyethylene glycol and pH. J. Sci. Food Agric. 28:126-136 crossref(new window)

Karabulut, A., O. Canbolat, C. O. Ozkan and A. Kamalak. 2007. Determination of nutritive value of citrus tree leaves for sheep using in vitro gas production technique. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:529-535

Leden, I., N. T. Mui, P. Uden and D. van Binh. 2002. Nitrogen balance in goats fed flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla) and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) foliage based diets and effect of a daily supplmentation of polyethylene glycol (Peg) on intake and digestion. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:699-707

Lees, G. L., C. Hinks and N. H. Suttill. 1994. Effect of temperature on condensed tannin accumulation in leaf tissue of the big trefoil (Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr). J. Sci. Food Agric. 65:415-421 crossref(new window)

Makkar, H. P. S., M. Bluemmel and K. Becker. 1995. Formation of complexes between polyvinyl pyrrolidones or polyethylene glycol and tannins, and their implications in gas production and true digestibility in in vitro techniques. Br. J. Nutr. 73:897-913 crossref(new window)

McNabb, W. C., G. C. Waghorn, T. N. Barry and I. D. Shelton. 1993. The effect of condensed tannins in Lotus pedunculatus on the digestion and metabolism of methionine, cystine and inorganic sulphur in sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 70:647-661 crossref(new window)

Meissner, H. H., M. Smuts, W. A. van Niekerk and O. Acheampong Boateng. 1993. Rumen ammonia concentrations, and non-ammonia nitrogen passage to and apparent absorption from the small intestine of sheep ingesting subtropical, temperate, and tannin-containing forages. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 23:92-97

Odenyo, A. A., P. O. Osuji and O. Karanfil. 1997. Effect of multipurpose tree (MPT) supplements on ruminal ciliate protozoa. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 67:169-180 crossref(new window)

Ozkan, C. O. and M. Sahin. 2006. Comparison of in situ dry matter degradation with in vitro gas production of oak leaves supplemented with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG). Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19(8):1120-1126

Pritchard, D. A., D. C. Stocks, B. M. O'Sullivan, P. R. Martin, I. S. Hurwood and P. K. O'Rourke. 1988. The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on wool growth and liveweight of sheep consuming a mulga (Acacia aneura) diet. Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. 17:290-293

Reed, J. D. 1995. Nutritional toxicology of tannins and related polyphenols in forage legumes. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1516-1528

Reed, J. and H. Soller. 1987. Phenolics and nitrogen utilization in sheep fed browse. In: Herbivore Nutrition Research, 2nd International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores (Ed. M. Rose). University of Queensland, Brisbane pp. 47-48

Reed, J. D., H. Soller and A. Woodward. 1990. Fodder tree and straw diets for sheep: intake, growth, digestibility and the effects of phenolics on nitrogen utilisation. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 30:39-50 crossref(new window)

Rubanza, C. D. K., M. N. Shem, R. Otsyina, T. Ichinohe and T. Fujihara. 2003. Nutritive evaluation of some browse tree legume foliages native to semi-arid areas in Western Tanzania. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1429-1438

Satter, L. D. and L. L. Slyter. 1974. The effect of ammonia concentration on rumen microbial protein production in vitro. Br. J. Nutr. 32:199 crossref(new window)

Searle, P. L. 1984. The Berthelot or indophenol reaction and its use in the analytical chemistry of nitrogen - a review. Analyst 109:549-568 crossref(new window)

Silanikove, N., N. Gilboa, A. Perevolotsky and Z. Nitsan. 1996. Effect of a daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol on intake and digestion of tannin-containing leaves (Quercus calliprinos, Pistacia lentiscus, and Ceratonia siliqua) by goats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:199-205 crossref(new window)

Silanikove, N., Z. Nitsan and A. Perevolotsky. 1994. Effect of a daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol on intake and digestion of tannin-containing leaves (Ceratonia siliqua) by sheep. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:2844-2847 crossref(new window)

Terrill, T. H., G. B. Douglas, A. G. Foote, R. W. Purchas, G. F. Wilson and T. N. Barry. 1992. Effect of condensed tannins upon body growth, wool growth and rumen metabolism in sheep grazing sulla (Hedysarum coronarium) and perennial pasture. J. Agric. Sci. 119:265-273 crossref(new window)

Vaithiyanathan, S. and Kumar. 1993. Relationship between protein precipitating capacity of fodder tree leaves and their tannin content. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 44:281-287 crossref(new window)

Woodward, A. and J. D. Reed. 1997. Nitrogen metabolism of sheep and goats consuming Acacia brevispica and Sesbania sesban. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1130-1139