JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Feed Additives in Growing Lambs Fed Diets Containing Wet Brewers Grains
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of Feed Additives in Growing Lambs Fed Diets Containing Wet Brewers Grains
Aguilera-Soto, J.I.; Ramirez, R.G.; Arechiga, C.F.; Mendez-Llorente, F.; Lopez-Carlos, M.A.; Silva-Ramos, J.M.; Rincon-Delgado, R.M.; Duran-Roldan, F.M.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of feed additives on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and performance of lambs fed diets containing 60% wet brewers grains (WBG). In Experiment 1, two simultaneous trials were conducted. Fifty intact () lambs were used in a feedlot trial and 10 (rumen cannulated; ) in a digestion trial. The pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonia-N in lambs were also estimated. Lambs were randomly assigned to one of five diets: i) without additives (Con), ii) with 1% bicarbonate (Bic), iii) with 1% bentonite (Ben), iv) with 33 mg/kg monensin (Mon) and v) with 200 mg/kg fibrolityc enzymes (Enz). In Experiment 2, 120 RambouilletPelibuey intact male lambs () were used in a feedlot trial and randomly assigned to four diets: i) without additives (control), ii) with 1% Bic, iii) with 33 mg/kg Mon and iv) with 1% Bic and 33 mg/kg Mon. In Experiment 1, lambs fed diets containing Bic or Mon had significantly higher final weight, DMI, ADG than other lambs. However, apparent DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF digestibilities and ruminal individual VFA content were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Conversely, treatmentcollection period interaction was significant for ruminal pH and NH3. In Experiment 2, lambs fed diets containing a Bic and Mon combination had significantly higher final weight, DMI and ADG. It is concluded lambs fed Bic or Mon or Bic and Mon combination had better performance characteristics than lambs on Ben or Enz.
 Keywords
Feed Additives;Sheep;Wet Brewers Grains;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Adams, D. C., M. L. Galyean, H. E. Kiesling, J. D. Wallace and M. D. Finkner. 1981. Influence of viable yeast culture, sodium bicarbonate and monensin on liquid dilution rate, rumen fermentation and feedlot performance on growing steers and digestibility in lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 53:780-789.

2.
Aguilera, J. I., R. G. Ramirez, C. F. Arechiga, M. A. Lopez, R. Banuelos, M. Duran and E. R. Rodriguez. 2007. Influence of wet brewers grains on rumen fermentation, digestion and performance in growing lambs. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 6:641-645.

3.
AlZahal, O., N. E. Odongo, T. Mutsvangwa, M. M. Or-Rashid, T. F. Duffield, R. Bagg, P. Dick, G. Vessie and B. W. McBride. 2008. Effects of monensin and dietary soybean oil on milk fat percentage and milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 91:1166-1174. crossref(new window)

4.
AOAC. 1997. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.

5.
Assoumaya, C., M. Boval, J. L. Weisbecker, G. Saminadin and H. Archimède. 2007 Limits of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to improve digestion and intake of a tropical grass. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:914-919.

6.
Baah, J., J. A. Shelford, A. N. Hristov, T. A. McAllister and K. J. Cheng. 2005. Effects of tween 80 and fibrolytic enzymes on ruminal fermentation and digestibility of feeds in Holstein cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:816-824.

7.
Beauchemin, K. A., L. M. Rode and V. J. H. Sewalt. 1995. Fibrolytic enzymes increase fiber digestibility and growth rate of steers fed dry forages. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 75:641-644. crossref(new window)

8.
Beauchemin, K. A., W. Z. Yang and L. M. Rode. 1999. Effect of grain source and enzyme additive on site and extent of nutrient digestion in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:378-390. crossref(new window)

9.
Bergen, W. G. and D. B. Bates. 1984. Ionophores: Their effect on production efficiency and mode of action. J. Anim. Sci. 58: 1465-1483.

10.
Chaturvedi, O. H., A. Santra, M. K. Tripathi, J. Jayashankar and S. A. Karim. 2003. Weight gain and body conformational changes in weaned lambs fed high concentrate diets containing graded levels of sodium bicarbonate. Indian J. Anim Sci. 73: 668-673.

11.
Colling, D. P., R. A. Britton, S. D. Farlin and M. K. Nielsen. 1979. Effects of adding sodium bentonite to high grain diets for ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 48:641-648.

12.
Crawshaw, R. 2001. Co-product feeds animal feeds from food and drinks industries. Ed. Nottingham University Press. pp. 51-80.

13.
Daenicke, R., K. Rohr and J. Oslage. 1982. Effect of monensin on rumen fermentation, performance and body composition of growing bulls. Livest. Prod. Sci. 8:479-488. crossref(new window)

14.
FAO. 1986. Better utilization of crop residues and by-products in animal feeding. Research Guidelines, FAO, Rome. Paper 50/2.

15.
Feng, P., C. W. Hunt, G. T. Pritchard and W. E. Julien. 1996. Effect of enzyme preparations on in situ and in vitro degradation and in vivo digestive characteristics of mature cool-season grass forage in beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1349-1357.

16.
Fujita, T., T. Itoh, H. Majima and H. Sano. 2007 Influence of dietary salinomycin on feeding-induced variations of glucose kinetics and blood volatile fatty acids and insulin concentrations in sheep fed a high-roughage diet. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:365-372.

17.
Galyean, M. L. and R. C. Chabot. 1981. Effects of sodium bentonite, buffer salts, cement kiln dust and clinoptilolite on rumen characteristics of beef steers fed a high roughage diet. J. Anim Sci. 52:1197-1204.

18.
Garcia, C. G., G. D. Mendoza, M. S. Gonzalez, P. M. Cobos, M. E. Ortega and R. G. Ramirez. 2000. Effect of a yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and monensin on ruminal fermentation and digestion in sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 83:165-170. crossref(new window)

19.
Gehman, A. M., P. J. Kononoff, C. R. Mullins and B. N. Janicek. 2008. Evaluation of nitrogen utilization and the effects of monensin in dairy cows fed brown midrib corn silage. J. Dairy Sci. 91:288-300. crossref(new window)

20.
Gierus, M., L. de Jonge and G. A. L. Meijer. 2005. Physicochemical characteristics and degradation rate of soluble protein obtained from the washout fraction of feeds. Livest. Produc. Sci. 97:219-225. crossref(new window)

21.
Gomez-Vazquez, A., J. Perez, G. D. Mendoza, E. Aranda and A. Hernández. 2003. Fibrolytic exogenous enzymes improve performance in steers fed sugar cane and stargrass. Livest. Produc. Sci. 82:249-254. crossref(new window)

22.
Goodrich, R. D., J. E. Garrett, D. R. Gast, M. A. Kirick, D. A. Larson and J. C. Meiske. 1984. Influence of monensin on the performance of cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 58:1484-1498.

23.
Grainger, C., M. J. Auldist, T. Clarke, K. A. Beauchemin, S. M. McGinn, M. C. Hannah, R. J. Eckard and L. B. Lowe. 2008. Use of monensin controlled-release capsules to reduce methane emissions and improve milk production of dairy cows offered pasture supplemented with grain. J. Dairy Sci. 91: 1159-1165. crossref(new window)

24.
Granzin, B. C. and G. McL Dryden. 2005 Monensin supplementation of lactating cows fed tropical grasses and cane molasses or grain. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 120:1-16. crossref(new window)

25.
Hristov, A. N., T. A. McAllister and K. J. Cheng. 1998. Effect of dietary or abomasal supplementation of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility. J. Anim. Sci. 76:3146-3156.

26.
Hutjens, M. F. 1991. Feed additives. Vet. Clinics North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 7:525-535.

27.
Ivan, M., M. D. Dayrell, S. Mahadevan and M. Hidiroglou. 1992. Effects of bentonite on wool growth and nitrogen metabolism in fauna-free and faunated sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3194-3202.

28.
Jacques, K. A., D. E. Axe, T. R. Harris, D. L. Harmon, K. K. Bolsen and D. E. Johnson. 1986. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium bentonite on digestion, solid and liquid flow, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of forage sorghum silagebased diets fed to steers. J. Anim. Sci. 63:923-932.

29.
Kabak, B., A. D. Dobson and I. Var. 2006. Strategies to prevent mycotoxin contamination of food and animal feed: a review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 46:593-619. crossref(new window)

30.
Kawas, J. R., R. Garcia-Castillo, F. Garza-Cazares, H. Fimbres- Durazo, E. Olivares-Saenz, G. Hernández-Vidaml and C. D. Lu. 2007a. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and yeast on productive performance and carcass characteristics of light-weight lambs fed finishing diets. Small Rumin. Res. 67:157-163. crossref(new window)

31.
Kawas, J. R., R. Garcia-Castillo, F. Garza-Cazares, H. Fimbres- Durazo, E. Olivares-Saenz, G. Hernandez-Vidaml and C. D. Lu. 2007b. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and yeast on nutrient intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation of light-weight lambs fed finishing diets Small Rumin. Res. 67:149-156. crossref(new window)

32.
Kwatra, M. S., S. Nem Singh and M. S. Oberoi. 1983. Spontaneous brewer's grain toxicity in buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 53:330-331.

33.
Lana, R. P., J. B. Russell and M. E. Van Amborgh. 1998. The role of pH in regulating ruminal methane and ammonia production. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2190-2196.

34.
Lee-Rangel, H. A., G. D. Mendoza, J. M. Pinos-Rodriguez, R. Bárcena, F. Plata and R. Ricalde. 2006. Effect of an exogenous glucoamylase during different periods of time on performance of lambs fed sorghum based diets. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 29:141- 144.

35.
Lewis, G. E., C. W. Hunt, W. K. Sanchez, R. Treacher, G. T. Pritchard and P. Feng. 1996. Effect of direct-fed fibrolytic enzymes on the digestive characteristics of a forage-based diet fed to beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 74:3020-3028.

36.
Maas, J. A., G. F. Wilson, S. N. McCutcheon, G. A. Lynch, D. L. Burnham and J. France. 2001. The effect of season and monensin sodium on the digestive characteristics of autumn and spring pasture fed to sheep. J. Anim Sci. 79:1052-1058.

37.
Mandebvu, P. and H. Galbraith. 1999. Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation and variation in the proportion of barley and sugar beet pulp on growth performance and rumen, blood and carcass characteristics of young entire male lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 82:37-49. crossref(new window)

38.
Martineau, R., C. Benchaar, H. V. Petit, H. Lapierre, D. R. Ouellet, D. Pellerin and R. Berthiaume. 2007. Effects of lasalocid or monensin supplementation on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90:5714-5725. crossref(new window)

39.
Martini, M., P. Verità, F. Cecchim and D. Cianci. 1996. Monensin sodium use in lambs from the second week of life to slaughter at 105 days. Small Rumin. Res. 20:1-8. crossref(new window)

40.
Mbanzamihigo, L., C. J. Van Nevel and D. I. Demeyer. 1996. Lasting effects of monensin on rumen and ceacal fermentation in sheep fed a high grain diet. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 62: 215-228. crossref(new window)

41.
McAllister, T. A., K. Stanford, H. D. Bae, R. J. Treacher, A. N. Hristov, J. Baah, J. A. Shelford, K. J. Cheng. 2000. Effect of a surfactant and exogenous enzymes on digestibility of feed and on growth perfomance and carcass traits of lambs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 80:35-44. crossref(new window)

42.
McAllister, T. A., A. N. Hristov, K. A. Beauchemin, L. M. Rode and K. J. Cheng. 2001. Enzymes in ruminants diets (Ed. M. R. Bedford and G. G. Partridge). Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition CAB International pp. 273-298.

43.
Mees, D. C., N. R. Merchen and C. J. Mitchel. 1985. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on nitrogen balance, bacterial protein synthesis and sites of nutrient digestion in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 61:985-994.

44.
Miller, D. R., R. Elliott and B. W. Norton. 2008. Effects of an exogenous enzyme, Roxazyme G2 Liquid, on digestion and utilisation of barley and sorghum grain-based diets by ewe lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 140:90-109. crossref(new window)

45.
Morel, I. and E. Lehmann. 1997. Biertrebersilage in der Munimast. Agrarforschung 4:111-114.

46.
Murdock, F. R., A. S. Hodgson and R. E. Riley. 1981. Nutritive value of wet brewers' grains for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 64:1826-1832. crossref(new window)

47.
Muwalla, M. M., M. N. Abo-Shehada and F. Tawfiq. 1994. Effects of monensin on daily gain and natural coccidial infection in Awassi lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 13:205-209. crossref(new window)

48.
NRC. 2007. National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids, 1st Edition. National Academies Press Washington, DC. pp. 39-81.

49.
Okwee-Acai, J. and J. Acon. 2005. Claw lesions and lameness in zero-grazed cattle fed on brewer's grain in Uganda. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 53:107-112.

50.
Owaimer, A. N., M. S. Kraidees, M. Al-Saiady, S. Zahran and M. A. Abouheif. 2003. Effects of feeding monensin in combination with zeranol implants on performance, carcass traits and nutrient digestibility of growing lambs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1274-1280.

51.
Owens, E. L. 1959. Observations on the toxicity of brewers' grain for dairy cows. N.Z. Vet. J. 7:43-46. crossref(new window)

52.
Phy, T. S. and F. D. Provenza. 1998a. Eating barley too frequently or in excess decreases lambs' preference for barley but sodium bicarbonate and lasalocid attenuate the response. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1578-1583.

53.
Phy, T. S. and F. D. Provenza. 1998b. Sheep fed grain prefer foods and solutions that attenuate acidosis. J. Anim. Sci. 76:954-960.

54.
Poos, M. I., T. L. Hanson and T. J. Klopfenstein. 1979. Monensin effects on diet digestibility, ruminal protein bypass and microbial protein synthesis. J. Anim. Sci. 48:1516-1524.

55.
Pressman, B. C. 1976. Biological application of ionophores. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 45:501-520. crossref(new window)

56.
Provenza, F. D. 1995. Postingestive feedback as an elementary determinant of the food preference and intake in ruminants. J. Range Manage. 48:2-17. crossref(new window)

57.
Provenza, F. D. 1996. Acquired aversions as the basis for varied diets of ruminants foraging on rangelands. J. Anim. Sci. 74: 2010-2020.

58.
Rogers, J. A. and C. L. Davis. 1982. Rumen volatile fatty acid production and nutrient utilization in steers fed a diet supplemented with sodium bicarbonate and monensin. J. Dairy Sci. 65:944-952. crossref(new window)

59.
Santra, A., O. H. Chaturvedi, M. K. Tripathi, R. Kumar and S. A. Karim. 2003. Effect of dietary sodium bicarbonate supplementation on fermentation characteristics and ciliate protozoal population in rumen of lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 47:203-212. crossref(new window)

60.
Sarwar, M., M. Aasif Shahzad and M. Nisa. 2007a. Nutrient intake, acid base status and growth performance of Thalli lambs fed varying level of dietary cation-anion difference. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1713-1720.

61.
Sarwar, M., M. Aasif Shahzad and M. Nisa. 2007b. Influence of varying level of sodium bicarbonate on milk yield and its composition in early lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1858-1864.

62.
SAS. 2000. SAS/STAT User's Guide (8.1Edition). SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

63.
Sheppy, C. 2001. The current feed enzyme market and likely trends (Ed. M. R. Bedford and G. G. Partridge). Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition CAB International pp. 1-11.

64.
Simas, M. S. M., M. B. Botura, B. Correa, M. Sabino, C. A. Mallmann, T. C. B. S. Bitencourt and M. J. M. Batatinha. 2007. Determination of fungal microbiota and mycotoxins in brewers grain used in dairy cattle feeding in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Food Control 18:404-408. crossref(new window)

65.
Sormunen, C., P. Nykanen-Kurki and L. Jauhiainen. 2006. Effect of partial neutralization of grass silage on feed intake by lambs. In: Sustainable grassland-productivity: Proceedings of the 21st General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation, Badajoz, Spain. pp. 532-534.

66.
Steel, R. G. and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY. pp. 107-133.

67.
Titi, H. and W. F. Lubbadeh. 2004. Effect of feeding cellulase enzyme on productive responses of pregnant and lactating ewes and goats. Small Rumin. Res. 52:137-143. crossref(new window)

68.
Tripathi, M. K., A. Santra, O. H. Chaturvedi and S. A. Karim. 2004. Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on ruminal fluid pH, feed intake, nutrient utilization and growth of lambs fed high concentrate diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 111:27-39. crossref(new window)

69.
Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant, 2nd Ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. p. 373.

70.
Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and nonstarch polysaccarides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 66:2109-2115.

71.
Wadhwa, D. R., S. S. Randhawa, D. C. Nauriyal and K. B. Singh. 1995. Clinico-biochemical and therapeutic studies on brewer's grain toxicity in buffaloes. Indian J. Vet. Med.15:87-89.

72.
Walz, L. S., T. W. White, J. M. Fernandez, L. R. Gentry, D. C. Blouin, M. A. Froetschel, T. F. Brown, C. J. Lupton and A. M. Chapa. 1998. Effects of fish meal and sodium bentonite on daily gain, wool growth, carcass characteristics, and ruminal and blood characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2025-2031.

73.
Wang, Y., T. W. Alexander and T. A. McAllister. 2004. In vitro effects of Monensin and Tween 80 on ruminal fermentation of barley grain:barley silage-based diets for beef cattle. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 116:197-209. crossref(new window)

74.
West, J. W., L. O. Ely and S. A. Martin. 1994. Wet brewers grains for lactating dairy cows during hot, humid weather. J. Dairy Sci. 77:196-204. crossref(new window)

75.
Westendorf, M. L. and J. E. Wohlt. 2002. Brewing by-products: their use as animal feeds. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 18:233-252. crossref(new window)

76.
Yang, W. Z., K. A. Bauchemin and L. M. Rode. 1998. Effects of an enzyme feed additive on extent of digestion and milk production of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:391-397. crossref(new window)

77.
Younker, R. S., S. D. Winland, J. L. Firkins and B. L. Hull. 1998. Effects of replacing forage fiber or non-fiber carbohydrates with dried brewers grains. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2645-2656. crossref(new window)

78.
Zinn, R. A. and J. L. Borques. 1993. Influence of sodium bicarbonate and monensin on utilization of a fat-supplemented, high energy growing-finishing diet by feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. 71:18-25.

79.
Zinn, R. A., A. Plascencia and R. Barajas. 1994. Interaction of forage level and monensin in diets for feedlot cattle on growth performance and digestive function. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2209- 2215.