Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Comparison of the Effect of Green Tea By-product and Green Tea Probiotics on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality, and Immune Response of Finishing Pigs
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Comparison of the Effect of Green Tea By-product and Green Tea Probiotics on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality, and Immune Response of Finishing Pigs
Ko, S.Y.; Bae, I.H.; Yee, S.T.; Lee, S.S.; Uuganbayar, D.; Oh, J.I.; Yang, C.J.;
  PDF(new window)
The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of green tea by-product and green tea probiotics on the growth performance, meat quality and immune response of finishing pigs. A total of 72 crossbred "LandraceYorkshire" finishing pigs with an average of 76 kg body weight were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment had 3 replications with 6 pigs per replication. The four dietary treatments were control, antibiotics (control diet with 0.003% chlortetracycline added), and diets containing 0.5% green tea by-product or 0.5% green tea probiotic supplementation. Weight gain was increased in 0.5% green tea probiotics treatment compared to others, but there was no significant difference (p>0.05). The incorporation of 0.5% green tea probiotics to diets reduced the feed conversion ratio in finishing pigs (p>0.05). The incorporation of 0.5% green tea by-product into the pig diet reduced the crude protein and fat contents of the meat (p>0.05). Pigs fed diets containing 0.5% green tea probiotic supplementation had lowered meat TBA values compared to those fed 0.5% green tea by-product (p<0.05). The proliferation of spleen cells stimulated with Con A (concanavalin: 0.1, 0.3, and ) significantly increased with 0.5% green tea by-product treatment compared to antibiotic treatment (p<0.05), but was significantly decreased in 0.5% green tea probiotics treatment compared to the antibiotic treatment (p<0.05). When stimulated with Con A, splenocyte production of IL-6 from pigs treated with 0.5% green tea by-product or green tea probiotics was significantly increased compared to the antibiotic treatment group (p<0.05). Splenocyte production of TNF- after treatment with Con A was significantly higher following 0.5% green tea probiotics treatment (p<0.05), while TNF- production after LPS (lipopolysaccharide) was significantly higher in the 0.5% antibiotic treatment group (p<0.05).
Green Tea By-product;Green Tea Probiotics;Growth Performance;Meat Quality;Immune Response;Pig;
 Cited by
Inhibitory Activity of Garlic Fermented by Pediococcus pentosaceus KACC 91419 against Antibiotic-resistant Pathogens,Ham, Jun-Sang;Lee, Seung-Gyu;Kim, Min-Kyung;Oh, Mi-Hwa;Jeong, Seok-Geun;Kim, Dong-Hun;Lee, Se-Hyung;Chae, Jong-Pyo;Lee, Ji-Yoon;Kang, Dae-Kyung;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2010. vol.23. 9, pp.1236-1243 crossref(new window)
Effects of Dietary Synbiotics from Anaerobic Microflora on Growth Performance, Noxious Gas Emission and Fecal Pathogenic Bacteria Population in Weaning Pigs,Lee, Shin Ja;Shin, Nyeon Hak;Ok, Ji Un;Jung, Ho Sik;Chu, Gyo Moon;Kim, Jong Duk;Kim, In Ho;Lee, Sung Sill;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2009. vol.22. 8, pp.1202-1208 crossref(new window)
AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis, 15thed. Association of Official Analysis Chemist. Washington DC.

Baird, D. M. 1977. Probiotics help boost feed efficency. Feeds Stuffs. 49:11-11.

Berg, R. D. 1998. Probiotics, prebiotics or conbiotics. Trends Microbial. 6:89-92. crossref(new window)

Brunnekreeft, J. W., G. J. Boerma and B. Leijnse. 1983. Direct determination of total cholesterol by on-column gaschromatographic analysis without previous derivatisation compared with WHO-CDC reference method. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 20:360-363.

Bureenok, S., M. Tamaki, Y. Kawamoto and T. Nakada. 2007. Additive effects of green tea on fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) and the fermentative quality of rhodesgrass silage. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:920-924.

Cao, B. H., Y. Karasawa and Y. M. Guo. 2005. Effects of green tea polyphenols and fructooligosaccharides in semi-purified diets on broiler's performance and caecal microflora and their metabolites. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:85-89.

Chae, S. Y., S. H. Shin, M. J. Bae, M. H. Park, M. K. Song, S. J. Hwang and S. T. Yee. 2004. Effect of arabinoxylane and PSP on activation of immune cells. Kor. J. Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 33(2):278-286. crossref(new window)

Davis, G. W., G. C. Smith, Z. L. Capenter and H. R. Cross. 1975. Relationships of quality indicators to palatability attributes of pork loins. J. Anim. Sci. 41:1305.

Devries, M. E., L. Ran and D. J. Kelvin. 1999. On the edge: the physiological and pathophysiological role of chemokines during inflammatory and immunological responses. Semin Immunol. 11:95-104. crossref(new window)

Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F test. Biometrics. 11:1. crossref(new window)

Ezekowitz, R. A. B. and J. Hoffman. 1998. Innate immunity. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 10:9-53. crossref(new window)

Harris, B. and D. W. Webb. 1990. The effect of feeding a concentrated yeast culture product to lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. (Suppl. 1). 73:266-266.

Ishihara, N., D. C. Chu, S. Akachiand and L. R. Juneja. 2001. Improvement of intestinal microflora balance and prevention of digestive and respiratory organ diseases in calves by green tea extracts. Livest. Prod. Sci. 68:217-229. crossref(new window)

Itoh, K. 1999. Lactic acid bacteria and intestinal microflora, The 11th International Symposium on Lactic Acid Bacteria and Human Health, Seoul Korea. 23-25.

Jun, K. D., H. J. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. D. Paik and J. S. Kang. 2002. Characterization of Bacillus polyfermenticus SCD as a probiotic. Kor. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30:359-366.

Jung, Y. C. 2001. Effectof dietary green tea by-product on productivity in broiler and laying hens. Master Science thesis, Sunchon National University. Sunchon.

Kaneko, K., K. Yamasaki, Y. Tagawa, M. Tokunaga, M. Tobisa and M. Furuse. 2000. Effects of japanese tea (green tea) on the Growth and fat deposition of the broiler. Jpn. Poult. Sci. 37(6):349-356. crossref(new window)

Kaneko, K., K. Yamasaki, Y. Tagawa, M. Tokunaga, M. Tobisa and M. Furuse. 2001. Effects of dietary Japanese green tea Powder on growth, meat ingredient and lipid accumulation in broilers. Jpn. Poult. Sci. 38(5):77-85. crossref(new window)

Kaneko, K., K. Yamasakil, Y. Tagawa, M. Tokunaga, M. Tobisa and M. Furuse. 2001. Effects of dietary japanese green tea powder on growth, meat ingredient and lipid accumulation in broilers. Jpn. Poult. Sci. 38:77-85. crossref(new window)

Kim, Y. R., B. K. Ahn, M. S. Kim and C. W. Kang. 2000. Effects of dietary supplementation of probiotics (MS102) on performance, blood cholesterol level, size of small intestine and intestinal microflora in broiler chicks. Kor. J. Anim. Technol. 42(6):849-858.

Kondo, M., K. Kita and H. Yokota. 2006. Evaluation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of green tea waste ensiled with byproducts mixture for ruminants. Asian- Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:533-540.

Kondo, M., K. Kita and H. Yokota. 2007.Ensiled or oven-dried green tea by-product as protein feedstuffs: Effects of tannin on nutritive value in goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:880-886.

Kono, M., K. Furukawa, Y. M. Sagesaka, K. Nakagawa and K. Fujimoto. 2000. Effect of green tea grounds as dietary supplements on cultured yellowtail and ayu. J. Jpn. Soc. Food Sci. 47:932-937. crossref(new window)

Kook, K. and K. H. Kim. 2003. Changes in meat quality characteristics on refrigerated pork loin fed with supplemental bamboo vinegar. Kor. J. Anim. Technol. 45(2):265-272. crossref(new window)

Kroger. M. and J. A. Kurmann. 1989. Fermented milks-past, present and future. Food Technol. 43:92-99.

Kwon, O. S., J. S. Yoo, B. J. Min, K. S. Son, J. H. Cho, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Chen and I. H. Kim. 2005. Effect of supplemental medicinal plants (Artemisia, Acanthopanx and Garlic) on growth performance and serum characteristics in lactating sows, suckling and weanling pigs. Kor. J. Anim. Technol. 47(4):501-512. crossref(new window)

Lyons, T. P. and K. A. Jacques. 2000. Biotechnology in the feed industry, Proceedings of Alltech's 16th Annual Symposium, Nottingham University Press.

Martin, S. A. and D. J. Nisbet. 1992. Effectof direct-fed microbials on rumen microbial fermentation. J. Dairy Sci. 75:1736. crossref(new window)

Mavromatis, J. and S. C. Kyriakis. 1998. Use of origanum essential oils as growth promoter in pigs. Proceedings of the 15th IPVS Congress. 3:221.

NRC. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 9th. Ed. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C

Nishida, T., B. Eruden, K. Hosoda, K. Nakagawa, T. Miyazawa and S. Shioya. 2006. Effects of green tea (camellia sinensis) waste silage and polyethyleneon ruminal fermentation and blood components in cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1728- 1736.

Park, J. H., O. C. Lim, C. S. Na and K. S. Ryu. 2003. Effect of dietary supplementation of yeast culture on the performance, nutrient digestibility and physico-chemical characteristics of the pork in growing-finishing pigs. Kor. J. Anim. Technol. 45(2):219-228. crossref(new window)

SAS. 1990. SAS User's guide: statistics. Version 6, Fourth edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.

Sayama, K., S. Lin, G. Zheng and I. Oguni. 2000. Effect of green tea on growth, food utilization and lipid metabolism in mice. In vivo. 14:481-484.

Schall, T. J. and K. B. Bacon. 1994. Chemolines, leukocyte trafficking, and inflammation. Current Opinion in Immunology. 6:865-873. crossref(new window)

Sedo. 1986. Agricultural Experimental Station Report. University of Barcelona. Barcelona, Spain.

Shin, S. H., S. Y. Chae, M. H. Ha, S. K. Jo, S. H. Kim, M. W. Byun and S. T. Yee. 2004. Effect of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang on B cell development. J. Kor. Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 33(2):271-277. crossref(new window)

Snyder and Champness, W. 1997. Molecular genetics ofbacteria. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 7-10.

Suzuki, K., H. Kadowaki, M. Hinoand and K. Tamura. 2002. The influence of green tea in pig feed on meat production and quality. Jpn J. Swine Sci. 39:59-65.

Uuganbayar, D., I. H. Bae, K. S. Choi, I. S. Shin, J. D. Firman and C. J. Yang. 2005. Effects of green tea powder on laying performance and egg quality in laying hens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1769-1774.

Uuganbayar, D., I. S. Shin and C. J. Yang. 2006. Comparative performance of hens fed diets containing Korean, Japanes and Chinese green tea. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1190-1196.

Vernon, C. W., G. F. Krause and E. M. Bailey. 1970. A new extraction method for determining2-thibarbituric acid values of pork and beef during storage. J. Food. Sci. 35:582-585. crossref(new window)

Yang, C. J., Y. C. Yang and D. Uuganbayar. 2003. Effect of feeding diets containing green tea by-products on laying performance and egg quality in hens. Kor. J. Poult. Sci. 30(3):183-189.