Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Hot Environment and Dietary Protein Level on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Hot Environment and Dietary Protein Level on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens
Gu, X.H.; Li, S.S.; Lin, H.;
  PDF(new window)
This study was conducted to determine the effect of hot environment and dietary crude protein level (CP) on performance, carcass characteristics, meat visual quality, muscle chemical composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of tissues in broilers. Two hundred and sixteen 21-d old Arbor Acre broilers were used in a factorial arrangement and randomly reared in 4 environmental chambers and fed on 3 diets with different CP levels for 3 weeks. The results showed: (1) when air temperature (AT) rose to , average daily feed intake, average daily gain, carcass weight, right breast meat weight, left thigh and drumstick meat weight decreased (p<0.05) and feed conversion rate decreased (p<0.05), but the ratio of carcass to live weight and of left thigh and drumstick meat weight to carcass weight increased (p<0.05). (2) There were significant differences in pH and shear force in breast meat, and shear force, L* and a* in thigh meat (p<0.01 or 0.05) among hot environments. Dietary CP level tended to affect breast meat pH and pH and L* of thigh meat (p<0.06 or 0.09). Compared to the normal temperature (), low temperature () and hot humid (AT , relative humidity (RH) 80%) treatments significantly (p<0.05) decreased the tenderness of thigh meat. L* and a* value in thigh meat under high temperature treatments, regardless of RH, were higher (p<0.05) than those under normal temperature. (3) Protein content in breast and thigh meat of broilers fed under high temperature () was lower (p<0.05) than that under , but fat content had an adverse change. High temperature () increased the moisture of breast meat significantly (p<0.05). Protein content in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.05), in which fat content had an adverse change (p<0.05), when the dietary protein rose. (4) MDA concentration in liver and breast meat under hot humid (AT , RH 80%) treatment increased markedly (p<0.05). (5) High humidity could sharpen the bad effect of high temperature on performance, carcass yield and choice cuts, crude protein and moisture content in breast meat. It was concluded that a hot environment could affect the performance and meat quality of broiler chicks more significantly than CP level and that high humidity would aggravate the bad influence of high temperature on the broiler.
Hot Environment;Dietary Protein Level;Performance;Meat Quality;Broiler;
 Cited by
Possible Effects of Delivering Methionine to Broilers in Drinking Water at Constant Low and High Environmental Temperatures, Italian Journal of Animal Science, 2014, 13, 1, 3013  crossref(new windwow)
Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response, International Journal of Biometeorology, 2014, 58, 7, 1405  crossref(new windwow)
The influences of ambient temperature and crude protein levels on performance and serum biochemical parameters in broilers, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2015, 100, 2, 301  crossref(new windwow)
Nutritional enrichment of broiler breast meat through dietary supplementation of Indian ginseng Withania somnifera and synbiotic substances under semi-arid climatic conditions, Veterinary World, 2017, 10, 11, 1301  crossref(new windwow)
The Effects of Different Amount of Protein and Vitamin e Supplementation in Rations on Lipid and Antioxidant Metabolism of Broilers Exposed to Heat Stress, Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola, 2017, 19, 2, 289  crossref(new windwow)
Aletor, V. A., I. I. Hamid, E. Nieb and E. Pfeffer. 2000. Low-protein amino acid supplemented diets in broiler chickens: effects on performance, carcass characteristics, whole body composition and efficiencies of nutrient utilization. J. Sci. Food Agric. 80:547-554. crossref(new window)

Alleman, F. and B. Leclercq. 1997. Effect of dietary protein and environmental temperature on growth performance and water consumption of male broiler chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 38:607-610. crossref(new window)

Aoyagi, Y., T. Ohnishi and S. Itoh. 1997. Effect of heat stress and L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate magnesium on plasma and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentration and on liver protein carbony concentration in chicks. Jpn. Poult. Sci. 34(1):63-66. crossref(new window)

Austic, R. E. 1985. Feeding poultry in hot and cold climates. In: Stress Physiology in Livestock (Ed. M. K. Yousef). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 123-136.

Baghel, R. P. S. and K. Pradhan. 1991. Influence of dietary energy and protein levels on the utilization of metabolisable energy in broilers during hot humid season. Indian Vet. J. 68:139-144.

Baziz, H. A., P. A. Geraert, J. C. F. Padilha and S. Guillaumin. 1996. Chronic heat exposure enhances fat deposition and modifies muscle and fat partition in broiler carcass. Poult. Sci. 75:505-513. crossref(new window)

Borges, S. A., A. V. Fischer da Silva, A. Maiorka, D. M. Hooge and K. R. Cummings. 2004. Effects of diet and cyclic daily heat stress on electrolyte, nitrogen and water intake, excretion and retention by colostomized male broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 3(5):313-321. crossref(new window)

Buono, M. J., J. H. Heaney and K. M. Canine. 1998. Acclimation to humid heat lowers resting core temperature. Am. J. Physiol. 274:R1295-R1299.

Droge, W. 2002. Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Physiol. Rev. 82:47-95. crossref(new window)

Furlan, R. L., D. E. de Faria Filho, P. S. Rosa and M. Macari. 2004. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions? Brazilian J. Poult. Sci. 6(2):71-79.

Geraert, P. A., J. C. F. Padilha and S. Guillaumin. 1996. Metabolic and endocrine changes induced by chronic heat exposure in broiler chickens: biological and endocrinological variables. Br. J. Nutr. 75:205-216. crossref(new window)

Gonzalez-Esquerra, R. and S. Leeson. 2005. Effects of acute versus chronic heat stress on broiler response to dietary protein. Poult. Sci. 84:1562-1569. crossref(new window)

Gu, X. H., R. Du and L. Fang. 1999. Effect of humidity on rectal temperature, plasma $t_3$ and insulin level in broilers under high ambient temperature. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 32:105-107.

Han, Y. and D. H. Baker. 1993. Effects of sex, heat stress, body weight, and genetic strain on the dietary lysine requirement of broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 72:701-708. crossref(new window)

Howlider, M. A. R. and S. P. Rose. 1987. Temperature and the growth of broilers. World's Poult. Sci. J. 43:228-237. crossref(new window)

Howlider, M. A. R. and S. P. Rose. 1989. Rearing temperature and the meat yield of broilers. Br. Poult. Sci. 30:61-67. crossref(new window)

Leenstra, F. and A. Cahaner. 1991. Genotype by environment interactions using fast-growing, lean or fat broiler chickens, originating from the Netherlands and Israel, raised at normal or low temperature. Poult. Sci. 70:2028-2039. crossref(new window)

Li, S. Y. 1999. Studies on the effect of heat stress on performance and meat quality of broilers and anti-stress effect of riboflavin. Ph. D. Thesis, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing.

Lin, H., H. F. Zhang, H. C. Jiao, T. Zhao, S. J. Sui, X. H. Gu, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Buyse and E. Decuypere. 2005a. The thermoregulation response of broiler chickens to humidity at different ambient temperatures I. One-week-age. Poult. Sci. 84:1166-1172. crossref(new window)

Lin, H., H. F. Zhang, R. Du, X. H. Gu, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Buyse and E. Decuypere. 2005b. The thermoregulation response of broiler chickens to humidity at different ambient temperatures I. Four-week-age. Poult. Sci. 84:1173-1178. crossref(new window)

Lin, H., S. J. Sui, H. C. Jiao, J. Buyse and E. Decuypere. 2006a. Impaired development of broiler chickens by stress mimicked by corticosterone exposure. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A. 143:400-405. crossref(new window)

Lin, H., E. Decuypere and J. Buyse. 2006b: Acute heat stress induces oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A. 144:11-17. crossref(new window)

Mccurdy, R., D. S. Barbut and M. Quinton. 1996. Seasonal effect on pale soft exudative (PSE) occurrence in young turkey breast meat. Food Res. Int. 29:363-366. crossref(new window)

McKee, S. R. and A. R. Sams. 1997. The effect of seasonal heat stress on rigor development and the incidence of pale, exudative turkey meat. Poult. Sci. 76:1616-1620. crossref(new window)

Musharaf, N. A. and J. D. Latshaw. 1999. Heat increment as affected by protein and amino acid nutrition. World's Poult. Sci. J. 55:233-240. crossref(new window)

Northcutt, J. K., E. A. Foegeding and F. W. Edens. 1994. Waterholding properties of thermally preconditiond chicken breast and leg meat. Poult. Sci. 73:308-316. crossref(new window)

Osman, A. M. A., E. S. Tawfik, F. W. Klein and W. Hebeler. 1989. Effect of environmental temperature on growth, carcass traits and meat quality of broilers of both sexes and different ages. 1. Growth. Archiv fur Geflugelkunde 53:168-175.

Owens, C. M., S. R. McKee, N. S. Matthews and A. R. Sams. 2000. The development of pale, exudative meat in two genetic lines of turkeys subjected to heat stress and its prediction by halothane screening. Poult. Sci. 79:430-435.. crossref(new window)

Sandercock, D. A., R. R. Hunter, G. R. Nute, M. A. Mitchell and P. M. Hocking. 2001. Acute heat stress-induced alterations in blood acid/base status and skeletal muscle membrane integrity in broiler chickens at two ages: implications for meat quality. Poult. Sci. 80:418-425. crossref(new window)

Slater, T. F. 1984. Free radical mechanisms in tissue in injury. Biochem. J. 222:1-15. crossref(new window)

Tankson, J. D., Y. Vizzier-Thaxton, J. P. Tankson, J. D. May and J. A. Cameron. 2001. Stress and nutritional quality of broilers. Poult. Sci. 80:1384-1389. crossref(new window)

Teeter, R. G., M. O. Smith, F. N. Owens, S. C. Arp, S. Sangiah and J. E. Breazile. 1985. Chronic heat stress and respiratory alkalosis: occurrence and treatment in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 64:1060-1064. crossref(new window)

Temim, S., A. M. Chagneau, S. Guillaumin, J. Michael, R. Peresson, P. A. Geraert and S. Tesseraud. 1999. Effects of chronic heat exposure and protein intake on growth performance, nitrogen retention and muscle development in broiler chickens. Reprod. Nutri. Dev. 39:145-156. crossref(new window)

Temim, S., A. M. Chagneau, S. Guillaumin, J. Michael, R. Peresson and S. Tesseraud. 2000. Does excess dietary protein improve growth performance and carcass characteristics in heat-exposed chickens? Poult. Sci. 79:312-317. crossref(new window)

Yahav, S., S. Goldfeld, I. Plavnik and S. Hurwitz. 1995. Physiological responses of chickens and turkeys to relative humidity during exposure to high ambient temperature. J. Therm. Biol. 20:245-253. crossref(new window)